Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Further Development of Particulate Sensors for Mobile Use with the Aid of a Circuit Board

2020-10-05
2020-01-1638
In the last decade, pollution by particulate matter and its effect on human health has increasingly become the focus of public attention. In order to monitor and evaluate particulate pollution, expensive measuring stations were placed at traffic hotspots and other selected locations. The measuring devices often precisely record the particle concentration, but have disadvantages in mobility and for measurements in large-area due to their size and investment costs. A measurement with high temporal and spatial resolution is not possible with these stations. This paper presents a new type of mobile particulate sensor based on the Plantower PMS 7003 particle sensor. In addition to the Plantower sensor, a rechargeable battery and newly developed control electronics are also installed in the particulate sensor. Due to the small size and the low manufacturing costs of the measuring system, mobile usage in higher quantity is possible.
Technical Paper

Usage of Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensors for Characterization of Emission Dynamics at a Traffic Intersection and for the Description of Pollution in Urban Areas

2020-10-05
2020-01-1636
Despite the increase in public attention to particulate matter emissions since the millennium and the known effects on the human organism, representative predictions on the dispersion of emissions in both urban and rural areas are hardly possible so far. Especially the validation of simulations with measurement results is not possible due to the limited number and high price of certified measuring instruments. Rather, the temporally high-resolution measuring instruments are only sporadically distributed within the city, so that emission dynamics at traffic hotspots, such as traffic jams or intersections, cannot be depicted. Furthermore, due to the small number of certified measuring instruments, fine dust pollution can only be interpolated over long distances. In this paper, first statements about the transport characteristics of particles at a road intersection will be made by using a variety of so-called low-cost particulate matter sensors.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Potentials and Challenges of a Brake Particle Emission Collecting System

2020-10-05
2020-01-1635
Brake particle emissions as a part of non-exhaust emissions are becoming more and more relevant, various international research activities can be stated. Also from the legislation side, first hints are given in regards of possible regulations. One possible approach for the reduction of brake particle emissions deals with the collection of those particles close to the foundation brake. The presented paper will follow such an approach and give some insights. In a first step, the technical layout is described for bench and vehicle testing. While for bench testing a PMP-like style of the setup could be chosen, the vehicle test setup is oriented on conventional wheel dust measurements. Hence, presented results of laboratory testing are dealing with PN and PM measurements. Also the impact on particle size distribution is discussed. It can be stated, that the particle collecting system is able to improve PN and PM emissions. Additionally, ultra-fine particles are almost eliminated.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study Assessing the Viability of Shifting the Location of Peak In-Cylinder Pressure in Motored Experiments

2020-09-27
2020-24-0009
Hybrid powertrains utilize an engine to benefit from the power density of the liquid fuel to extend the range of the vehicle. On the other hand, the electric machine is used for; transient operation, for very low loads and where legislation prohibits any gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, the operating points of an engine nowadays shifted from its conventional, broad range of speed and load to a narrower operating range of high thermal efficiency. This requires a departure from conventional engine architecture, meaning that analytical models used to predict the behavior of the engines early in the design cycle are no longer always applicable. Friction models are an example of sub-models which struggle with previously unexplored engine architectures. The “pressurized motored” method has proven to be a simple experimental setup which allows a robust FMEP determination against which engine friction simulation can be fine-tuned.
Technical Paper

On the Effects of Turbocharger on Particle Number and Size Distribution in a Heavy - Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0007
Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects and the severity varies based on the particle size. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) in the after-treatment systems is employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of a DPF depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size. This could potentially be used to reduce particle number or change the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of a heavy-duty diesel engine’s turbine on particle number and size distribution.
Technical Paper

The Effect of TiB2 on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of AZ91 Matrix Composites Manufactured by Cold Chamber Die Casting Process

2020-09-25
2020-28-0425
In these work AZ91 magnesium matrix composites reinforced with two weight fractions (5 and 10 wt. %) of TiB2 particulates were fabricated by cold chamber die casting process technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, mechanical properties of the specimens was investigated. Microstructure studies showed that fairly uniform distribution of reinforcements was achieved up to the weight fraction studied. As compared to base alloy AZ91, the hardness and tensile strength considerably increased with increasing reinforcement content. The presence of TiB2 particles improved the hardness around 24.4 %, compressive strength around 67.2% and the yield strength around 20%. The enormous amount of increment in the compressive strength due to the dislocation density created by the difference in thermal properties of matrix and composites and also due to the micro-pores presence in the composite.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering applications because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fiber and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt. % of Glass Fibre, while the fixed quantity of Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt. % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, and impact strength were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Standard

Packing, Preformed - O-Ring Seal, Standard Sizes and Size Codes, Metric

2020-09-22
WIP
MA2010A

This standard provides the standard sizes and side identification codes for preformed packings, elastomeric o-ring seals, for use in metric aerospace fluid systems.

The aerospace o-ring sizes and size identification codes in this standard are in agreement with ISO 3601/1, Series A.

X