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Technical Paper

An experimental study to understand the effect of calibration parameters and operating conditions on piston and cylinder bore temperatures for a multi-cylinder DI diesel engine through piston telemetry

2022-12-23
2022-28-0485
There is a huge shift in Indian emission standards and that had made a huge impact on engineering work allied with engines and their AFT devices. The piston is most loaded with thermomechanical stresses and early detection of failure can save much time, cost and overall organization can focus to make more robust, technically fit, and reliable products to market. So, it is important to know the effect of engine operating conditions on power cylinder components and other related systems during the development phase of an engine. The operating temperatures are known to be affected by various calibration/control parameters relating to sub-systems like air handling, injection, and cooling systems. These are often tuned based on performance and emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Humidity Sensing behavior and Characterization of CuWO4 Nanoparticles

2022-12-23
2022-28-0537
Solution route precipitation technique is mostly opted to synthesize the nanostructured Copper tungstate by the incorporation of cupric ion solution to the aqueous sodium tungstate reagent. The size and surface of the synthesized nanostructured material highly influenced by the concentration of cuprous ion as well the tungstate solution. The structural pattern and chemical composition of CuWO4 nanoparticles analysed by powder XRD and FESEM with EDX spectrum. The powder XRD and EDX pattern confirm the elemental composition of the synthesized samples. FESEM images indicated that the particle was present in random size distribution. At 298 K different water vapour pressure thermostat was achieved in the range from 5% to 98%, as a relative humidity (RH). By providing the DC conductance measurement as a relative humidity, the humidity sensing nature of the material was investigated and the Sensitivity factor value of the prepared CuWO4 was calculated.
Technical Paper

Optimization of operational parameters on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine powered with Mimusops elengi methyl ester with doped TiO2 nanoparticle.

2022-12-23
2022-28-0574
The current research was aimed at determining the most effective way to use alternative renewable feedstock to power a diesel engine. Mimusops elengi, a new and novel biofuel was recognized for this current study which is widely available in the south of India. The study was initiated B20 (20% of Mimusops elengi methyl ester ) was blended with diesel on a volume basis. Furthermore, it was identified that when the performance characteristics were traded off, the emission magnitude was slightly higher. To address the pollution caused by diesel engines, an oxygenated nano additive, titanium oxide, was doped only with the the fuel blend at distinctive mass fractions of 25, 50, 75, and 100 parts per million (ppm). The tests were created with the help of a statistical programme known as design of experiments entirely based on Taguchi and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Phenomena in Kerosene-Graphene Nanoplatelets in a Mini Channel Heat Sink

2022-11-07
2022-01-5093
Our work intends to conduct experiments on kerosene-graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) nanofluid in a mini channel heat sink (MCHS) in two concentrations of graphene to verify the heat transfer and other hydrothermal phenomena. Many experiments have already been carried out on cooling electronic devices using mini channels along with various water-based nanofluids. The experiments with kerosene-GNP nanofluid are conducted in two different weight percentages of graphene, 0.01 and 0.03. The surfactant used for best visual stability is oleylamine, with an optimum mass ratio of 0.6 between it and graphene nanoparticles. A Peltier heater is attached to the bottom of the mini channel and provided with three different heat supplies of 8 W, 10 W, and 12 W, respectively, by varying the current and voltage of the direct current (DC) source. The GNP-based nanofluid is passed at three different flow rates of 0.3 l/min, 0.4 l/min, and 0.5 l/min.
Standard

Ice Melting Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-Icing Chemicals

2022-10-27
CURRENT
AIR6170B
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators, and airport authorities) with relative ice melting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the amount of ice melted as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time ice melting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
Standard

Shot Peening, Computer Monitored

2022-10-13
CURRENT
AMS2432E
This specification establishes the requirements for computer-monitored shot peening of part surfaces by impingement of media, including metallic, glass, or ceramic shot. Computer-monitored peening is intended to provide a method of process observation, traceability, and response for all process input settings, in real time, during the entire peening process to ensure with objective evidence, the desired process outputs. AMS2430 forms an integral part of this specification.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Post-Combustion CO2 Adsorption Using Adsorbent

2022-10-05
2022-28-0318
Continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere increases global warming potential (GWP), resulting in climate change and environmental threats. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the possible options to mitigate CO2 emissions that are released from various combustible devices. Currently, post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-fuel combustion are adopted in CCS. Absorption, adsorption, membrane, and cryogenic methods are used in post-combustion technology. Although many researchers have investigated absorption application for CCS, it poses some limitations. Compared to absorption, adsorption is considered a promising and potential method for CO2 capture. Adsorption by solid adsorbent has the following benefits; (i) it is a simple and energy-efficient method, (ii) it requires minimum energy for regeneration, (iii) it is applied over a wide range of temperature and pressure, and (iv) it can be easily used in the existing working system.
Technical Paper

Emission Performance and Durability Validation Methodology for Heavy Commercial Vehicle After-treatment Systems

2022-10-05
2022-28-0327
To meet stringent emission norms and commercial vehicle customer demands, the selection of an after-treatment system (ATS) plays a considerable role. Therefore, the selected ATS should substantially reduce nitrogen oxide emission by proper decomposition of ammonia and particulate matter without significantly increasing the thermal stress on DPF. Though the BS-VI after-treatment architecture is derived from EURO-VI, only a certain level of technology for the vehicle operating conditions in India can be implemented. However, numerous vehicle operating condition challenges in the Indian market must be explicated. Correspondingly, it should be addressed with a robust durability validation methodology to enhance the ATS product performance in challenging environments. This paper discusses SCR catalysts emission performance and ammonia decomposition durability validation methodology for commercial vehicles.
Standard

SAE Manual on Blast Cleaning

2022-09-23
CURRENT
J792_202209
Blast cleaning may be defined as a mechanical pre-treatment process in which a suitable stream of solid particles is propelled with sufficient velocity against a work surface to cause a cleaning or abrading action when it comes in contact with the workpiece. Blast cleaning may be employed for a variety of purposes. It is a well-established method for removing sand from castings and burrs or scale from forgings, mill products, or heat treated parts; to promote machinability; and to minimize the possibility of interference in actual operation. In addition to this use, blast cleaning also produces a suitable surface for downstream industrial coatings. All these objectives are often accomplished in the one operation. As a general understanding, this document pertains to blast cleaning only. Any reference to shot peening or other processes is only to explain a context or concept related to blast cleaning.
Standard

Long Term Storage of Electronic Devices

2022-09-16
WIP
GEIASTD0003B
This document provides an industry standard for Long Term Storage (LTS) of electronic devices by drawing from the best long term storage practices currently known. LTS is defined as any device storage for more than 12 months but typically allows for much longer (years). While intended to address the storage of unpackaged semiconductors and packaged electronic devices, nothing in this standard precludes the storage of other items under the storage levels defined herein. This standard is not intended to address built-in failure mechanisms (e.g., tin whiskers, plating diffusion, and intermetallics) that would take place regardless of storage conditions
Technical Paper

Research on the Condensation Effect on Combustion Stability in LP EGR System Engine

2022-09-13
2022-01-1154
In response to the national policy of energy conservation and emission reduction, more technologies that can improve the thermal efficiency of engines are gradually applied. Among them, EGR technology has high cost -performance in energy conservation,emission reduction and improving the thermal efficiency of engines. EGR technology redirects a portion of exhaust gas into the engine intake, mixes it with fresh air, and then re-burns it in the engine combustion chamber. Because of the mixture of high temperature exhaust gas and fresh air, if the temperature of the mixture is lower than the dew point temperature of condensate water, condensate water will be precipitated. Excessive condensate water will make the engine combustion worse, and even cause engine misfire. Based on a 1.5L low pressure EGR system engine, this paper studies the factors affecting the condensate generation and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Butanol-Diesel Blend (B15) Doped with Diethyl Ether, Diglyme and Ethyl Diglyme in a CRDI Diesel Engine

2022-08-30
2022-01-1073
Butanol is a potential alternative fuel for diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines. Many of the physico-chemical properties of butanol such as low carbon-to-hydrogen (C/H) ratio compared to diesel, higher heating value, lower heat of vaporization and suitable density-viscosity values compared to ethanol and methanol makes it suitable as an alternative fuel. However, poor cetane number and miscibility are the limitations associated with butanol. The use of fuel additives as ignition improver could be beneficial in overcoming the issues associated with alcohols. In this work, an experimental investigation in a twin-cylinder CI engine was carried out to assess the effect of doped cetane improving additives (Diethyl ether (DEE), Diglyme (DEGME) and Ethyl diglyme (DEGEE)) for diesel-butanol blend (B15).
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Combustion Improvement under Heterogeneous Combustion Field by using Multi-Impinging Injection System

2022-08-30
2022-01-1081
Although it is common knowledge that direct injection provides high thermal efficiency and lower emission in internal combustion engines, the fuel impingement on the combustion chamber wall would lead to engine performance and particulate emission deterioration. Reducing emission products and cooling loss caused by fuel adhesion on the chamber wall is urgent. To solve the problems above, we developed the new impinging injection and multi-impinging injection method. The impinging injection method uses two injectors set axisymmetric opposite each other, to realize the fuel atomization effect caused by the liquid fuel spray impingement. The multi-impinging injection is impinging injection with two liquid fuel injection stage. From our previous study, the efficiencies of impinging injection and multi-impinging injection have been proved through the combustion characteristic improvements.
Technical Paper

Generation of Reactive Chemical Species/Radicals through Pilot Fuel Injection in Negative Valve Overlap and Its Effects on Engine Performances

2022-08-30
2022-01-1002
This study investigated the potential of generating reactive chemical species (including radicals) through pilot fuel injection in negative valve overlap for improving the combustion and emissions performances of spark ignition gasoline engines under low load and low speed operating conditions. Several Ford sub-models were used for simulating the physics and chemistry processes of injecting a small amount of fuel in NVO (negative valve overlap). Effects of different NVO degrees and different pilot injection timings, factors for fuel conversion were simulated and investigated. CO and H2 conversions during NVO, CO and H2 amounts before spark timing were used for comparing different schemes.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Different Methane/Hydrogen Blends in a CI Engine Operating in Dual Fuel Mode

2022-08-30
2022-01-1056
Nowadays, the stricter regulations in terms of emissions have limited the use of diesel engines on urban roads. On the contrary, for marine and off-road applications the diesel engine still represents the most feasible solution for work production. In the last decades, dual fuel operation with methane supply has been widely investigated. Starting from previous studies on a research engine, where diesel-methane dual fuel combustion has been deepened both experimentally and numerically with the aid of a CFD code, the authors implemented and tested a kinetic mechanism. It is obtained from the combination of the well-established GRIMECH 3.0 and a detailed scheme for a diesel surrogate oxidation. Moreover, the Autoignition-Induced Flame Propagation model, included in the ANSYS Forte® software, is applied because it can be considered the most appropriate model to describe dual fuel combustion.
Standard

Test for Chip Resistance of Surface Coatings

2022-08-26
CURRENT
J400_202208
This SAE Recommended Practice covers a laboratory procedure for testing and evaluating the resistance of surface coating to chipping by gravel impact. The test is designed to reproduce the effect of gravel or other media striking exposed paint or coated surfaces of an automobile. The specific intent of the test is to evaluate organic surface coatings or systems on flat test panels; however, it may be possible to extend this type of testing to finished parts or other types of materials such as anodized aluminum or plated plastics if the results are interpreted with respect to the limitations and intent implied by the original testing procedures and rating system. This document may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use.
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