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Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-11-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-11-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Standard

Aircraft Wheel Inflation Valves Incorporating an Inflation Pressure Gauge

2020-10-26
CURRENT
ARP5543A
This specification covers the recommended design, construction, performance and testing requirements for aircraft wheel inflation valves incorporating an inflation pressure gauge which are mounted on the aircraft wheel. These valve/gauge assemblies should be appropriate for use on all aircraft types supported by tubeless tire/wheel assemblies.
Standard

Fiber Optic Harsh Environment Test Methods Cross Reference Document

2020-10-23
WIP
AIR6282A
This standard provides a cross reference detailing current test methods used in the qualification processes of fiber optic connectors, termini and cables for aerospace, telecommunications and naval applications. The cross-reference allows the end user to select the test methods most suitable for qualifying a component, or to identify alternative test methods where a specific test is not defined in a referenced document. The standard also provides information on what area each type of referenced document has been developed for.
Standard

Flight Test Procedures for Static Pressure Systems Installed in Subsonic Transport Aircraft

2020-10-22
WIP
ARP921B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the test procedures and equipment for performing flight testing on pitot-static systems installed in subsonic transport type aircraft. The purpose of this document is to present recommendations for the flight testing of static pressure systems as installed in subsonic transport type aircraft.
Standard

Maximum-Allowable-Airspeed Instruments (Turbine Powered Subsonic Aircraft)

2020-10-22
WIP
AS437B
This Aerospace Standard covers one type of maximum-allowable-airspeed instrument which gives a continuous indication of both indicated airspeed and maximum allowable airspeed not exceeding 650 knots. This Aerospace Standard establishes the essential minimum safe performance standards for pitot-static type of maximum-allowable-airspeed instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in Section 3.3.
Standard

Automatic Pilots (Turbine Powered Subsonic Aircraft)

2020-10-22
WIP
AS440B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers autoatic pilots intended for use on aircraft to automatically operate the primary and trim aerodynamic controls to maintain stable flight and/or to provide maneuvering about any of the three axes through servo control. Automatic control functions essential for primary or augmented flight control are excluded. To establish essential minimum safe performance standards for automatic pilots primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instrument to the environmental conditions specified in Section 3.3.
Standard

Minimum Performance Standard, Stall Warning Equipment

2020-10-22
WIP
AS8014A
This aerospace standard establishes the minimum performance requirements for Stall Warning Equipment. This aerospace standard covers two basic Stall Warning Systems; one measures air flow and pressure distribution on the airfoil and the other measures the angle of airflow with respect to an arbitrary reference line. Each type of system includes, as a minimum, a sensor and the means for activating a device which warns the pilot of an impending stall.
Standard

Design Considerations for Enclosed Turbofan/Turbojet Engine Test Cells

2020-10-20
WIP
AIR4869B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been written for individuals associated with the ground-level testing of large and small gas turbine engines and particularly for those who might be interested in upgrading their existing or acquiring new test cell facilities.
Standard

Ground Support Equipment Hydraulic Systems, Design and Installation, Recommended Practices For

2020-10-10
WIP
ARP4943A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the design and installation requirements for hydraulic systems (up to 8000 psig [56 MPa]) for ground support equipment (GSE). The GSE may be portable or stationary. The hydraulic systems defined by this document shall be capable of servicing aircraft systems and components of all types and classes defined in MIL-H-5440. The terminology, Class XXXX, where XXXX is the GSE system pressure, is utilized within this document.
Standard

Marine Exhaust Hose

2020-10-08
WIP
J2006
This SAE Standard covers the flexible components of marine engine wet exhaust systems from the connection at the engine exhaust manifold to the hull or overboard discharge fittings.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-in-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission continues to be a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing and as seen in the work in progress presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emissions are in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguish from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. Reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm3 appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using AMESim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Analyze of Air Intake Manifold for Formula Vehicle

2020-09-25
2020-28-0485
The SAE formula student car organization constrained a rule to place a restrictor of diameter 20mm in between the throttle body and the engine inlet. The restrictor is a component that reduces and regulates the mass flow of air into the engine inlet. For this, a venture nozzle will be used as a restrictor in a vehicle to decrease the air pressure and increase the velocity in the intake manifold. Our proposed work aims to minimize the pressure drop by changing the convergent and divergent angles in the restrictor. For this by using solidworks eight various combinations of models with convergent angle as 13, 15 degrees, and divergent angle as 5,7 degrees was designed and analyzed using CFD fluent in ansys work bench. In this, 13 degree as convergent and 5 degree as a divergent model was found to have laminar airflow throughout with optimum pressure drop. The plenum is a large duct that equalizes the pressure drop caused by the restrictor in order to improve the efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic Study of Occupant Seating Using Near-Vertical Posture for Shared Mobility Applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0519
Transportation system is at the brink of revolution and many new ways of mobility are arising in the market to ease the pressure on the established transportation infrastructure. Many companies and governments around the world are exploring innovative options in the space of shared mobility to reduce the overall carbon footprint. To expedite the adoption of shared mobility in India, it is necessary to make such options comfortable and cost-effective. One of the most effective way to make shared mobility options cost effective is to comfortably increase occupancy per vehicle footprint. This paper aims to evaluate a novel method of occupant seating to identify the maximum number of passengers a vehicle can accommodate without significant impact on occupant comfort. It is assumed that shared mobility options are used for a short duration of commute, and hence the comfort of the seat can be marginally compromised to increase the total number of occupants.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Parameters on Performance and Emission of DI Diesel Engine Fuelled by 1,4-Dioxane Emulsified Fuel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0518
The pattern of utilizing the water/diesel emulsion fuels in engines had been given great importance due to its ecological and exhaustion of petroleum reserves. This investigation displays the impact of 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel on performance and emissions at various operating pressures. 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel (DWSD10) was prepared with 10% 1,4-dioxane, 10% water, 0.2% surfactant and 79.8% diesel. To estimate the engine performance and emissions, the engine was operated with 180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar operating pressures and the output was equated with diesel fuel operating on normal pressure of 200 bar. BTE of 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel at 220 bar was higher when compare with diesel fuel. CO, HC and BSEC were lower at 220 bar on par with diesel fuel. However, NOx was increases for the higher operating pressure. Overall, except NOx, at higher injection pressure (@220 bar) the 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel outperforms the diesel fuel in terms of emission and performance.
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