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Technical Paper

Parametric Investigations on Premixed Charged Compression Ignition in a Small Bore Light Duty Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2300
Achieving stable combustion without misfire and knocking is challenging in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) especially in small bore, air cooled diesel engines owing to lower power output and inefficient cooling system. In the present study, a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine used for agricultural water pumping applications is modified to run in PCCI by replacing an existing mechanical fuel injection system with a flexible common rail direct injection system. An advanced start of fuel injection (SOI) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are required to achieve PCCI in the test engine. Parametric investigations on SOI, EGR and fuel injection pressure are carried out to identify optimum parameters for achieving maximum brake thermal efficiency. An SOI sweep of 12 to 50 deg. CA bTDC is done and for each SOI, EGR is varied from 0 to 50% to identify maximum efficiency points. It was found that EGR helps in extending the load range from 20 to 40% of rated load.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on the Effects of Passive Prechambers on a Small 2-Stroke Low-Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2305
Two-stroke (2S) engines still play a key role in the global internal combustion engine (ICE) market when high power density, low production costs, and limited size and weight are required. However, they suffer from low efficiency and high levels of pollutant emissions, both linked to the short circuit of fuel and lubricating oil. Low- and high-pressure direct injection systems have proved to be effective in the reduction of fuel short circuiting, thus decreasing unburnt hydrocarbons and improving engine efficiency. However, the narrow time window available for fuel to be injected and homogenized with air, limited to few crank-angles, leads to insufficiently homogenized fuel-air mixtures and, as a consequence, to incomplete combustions. The use of prechambers can be a well-suited solution to avoid these issues.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

Turbulent jet ignition Effect on Exhaust Emission and Efficiency of a SI Small Engine Fuelled with Methane and Gasoline

2020-09-27
2020-24-0013
Pollutant emission of vehicle cars is nowadays a fundamental aspect to take into account. In the last decays, the company have been forced to study new solutions, such as alternative fuel and learn burn mixture strategy, to reduce the vehicle’s pollutants below the limits imposed by emission regulations. Pre-chamber ignition system presents potential reductions in emission levels and fuel consumption, operating with lean burn mixtures and alternative fuels. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the plasma jets in a different in-cylinder conditions. The activity was carried out in a research optical small spark ignition (SI) engine equipped alternatively with standard ignition system and per-chamber. The engine runs at 2000 rpm at wide open throttle (WOT) in standard ignition condition and slightly turbocharged in prechamber condition in order to overcame the decrease of compression ratio. In this activity methane and gasoline were used.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel

2020-09-27
2020-24-0006
In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increase. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 was studied.
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