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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

2020-09-30
2020-01-1507
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during the testing;thirdly,the NTF/VTF from the mount/suspension force exertion points to vehicle response points were measured off trimmed body impact testing, to create structural TPA model,that way,each transfer path contribution to the response point could be predicted and overall response can be synthesized from all paths;fourthly,the above-mentioned driveline model,combined the excitation on each cylinder considering the gas torque/inertia torque and motor average torque,was well calibrated to predict the mount/suspension force/critical rpm fluctuation/vibration;finally,it was validated that CAE results correlate very well to measurement outcome for defined loadcase, and that can be adopted to phev driveline/vehicle NVH development from the very start of vehicle development phase so as to expedite vehicle NVH developing process.
Technical Paper

Resabtors - Advanced Multi-Material Muffler Designs for Clean Air Applications

2020-09-30
2020-01-1554
The development and production of resonators on the charged air side of combustion engines require profound base of knowledge in designing, simulating and the production of such parts in different materials (aluminum, copper, stainless steel and technical plastic). As combustion engines are under constant discussion, this existing knowledge base should be used for other applications within and outside the automotive industry. Very quickly it became apparent that new challenges often require completely new solutions, designs and materials to meet the requirements of flow noise reducing parts. For example, for clean air applications mufflers based on “special treated foams” and “meta-materials” can be introduced. These materials offer new potentials for tuning of the frequency range and allow improved broad banded flow noise attenuation. Such parts are named “Resabtors” in order to take respect of the different flow noise attenuation principles resonation and absorbing.
Technical Paper

How Can Active Exhaust Systems Contribute to the Reduction of CO2 Emission and Comply with Future Pass-by Noise Limits?

2020-09-30
2020-01-1534
The pass-by noise limits of passenger vehicles according to ISO 362 / R51.3 will be further reduced by 2 dB in 2024 in Europe. Since the pass-by noise is substantially influenced by exhaust noise, the effort for the exhaust system needs to be increased. This results in systems with larger mufflers or higher backpressure. However, the more stringent CO2-emission targets require ever more efficient powertrains, which calls for rather lower backpressure to optimize the engine design. This paper describes, how compact active exhaust lines can support a design for low backpressure and high acoustic attenuation at the same time. For two passenger vehicle with gasoline engines, active exhaust lines are investigated in detail and the results are compared to the series production exhaust lines. Thus, in one exemplary case, the pass-by noise of a limousine could be reduced from 70 dB(A) to 68 dB(A) without any change in the vehicle design except the improved exhaust system.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study Assessing the Viability of Shifting the Location of Peak In-Cylinder Pressure in Motored Experiments

2020-09-27
2020-24-0009
Some hybrid powertrains utilize an engine to benefit from the power density of the liquid fuel while the electric machine; for transient needs, for very low loads and where legislation prohibits any gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, the operating drive cycle of an engine also shifted from its conventional, broad range of speed and load to a narrower operating range of high thermal efficiency. This requires a drastic departure from conventional engine architecture, meaning that analytical models used to predict the behaviour of the engines early in the design cycle are no longer always applicable. Friction models are an example of sub-models which struggle with previously unexplored engine architectures. The pressurized motored method has proven to be a simple experimental setup which allows a robust FMEP determination against which engine friction simulation can be fine-tuned.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

On the effects of Turbocharger on Particle Number and Size Distribution in a Heavy - Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0007
Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects. The severity varies based on the particle size as they deposit at different parts in the respiratory system. After-treatment systems are employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of the after-treatment system depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size could potentially be used in reducing particle number or changing the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of HD diesel engine’s turbine on non-volatile particle number and size distribution.
Technical Paper

CFD Numerical Reconstruction of the Flash Boiling Gasoline Spray Morphology

2020-09-27
2020-24-0010
The numerical reconstruction of the liquid jet generated by a multi-hole injector, operating in flash-boiling conditions, has been developed by means of an Eulerian- Lagrangian CFD code and validated thanks to experimental data collected with schlieren and Mie scattering imaging techniques. The model has been tested with different injection parameters in order to recreate various possible engine thermodynamic conditions. The work carried out is framed in the growing interest present around the gasoline direct-injection systems (GDI). Such technology has been recognized as an effective way to achieve better engine performance and reduced pollutant emissions. High-pressure injectors operating in flashing conditions are demonstrating many advantages in the applications for GDI engines providing a better fuel atomization, a better mixing with the air, a consequent more efficient combustion and, finally, reduced tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of A Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using Amesim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Design methodology of centrifugal automatic decompression system in small gasoline engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0322
This paper deals with designing methodology of centrifugal type automatic decompression system (CADS) for small gasoline engine. CADS reduce the operator’s fatigue to start the engine. When engine is cranked, CADS releases combustion pressure of the engine via opening of exhaust valve momentarily during compression stroke, which drastically reduces the hand pulling force required to start the engine with recoil starter unit. A 172 cc gasoline engine has been used for designing CADS which has to be installed at camshaft cam gear assembly of engine. With the new developed concept operator’s hand pulling force for starting the engine has been reduced to 41 % and henceforth durability of engine starting system increased significantly. In this paper detailed design approach has been discussed of working model of CADS.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in On-Road 6-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0347
According to the latest emission standards, NOx and PM emission from on road heavy duty diesel engines need to have a dramatic reduction. To limit these emissions, an aftertreatment system consist of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction and ammonia slip catalyst is installed downstream of the engine. DOC plays the vital role in controlling CO and HC emissions in diesel engines. DOC is a flow-through monolith honeycomb structure coated with platinum group metal. As the hot exhaust gases comes in contact with catalyst, pollutants get oxidized into a harmless substance such as carbon dioxide and water. The aim of this paper is to analyze performance of diesel oxidation catalyst. It includes HC oxidation test where raw fuel is dosed at the inlet of DOC to check HC oxidation efficiency and HC slip through DOC. In NO-NO2 oxidation test, analysis of NO oxidation efficiency of DOC by running PTP cycle is carried out.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on the effect of Shell design on Noise Quality and Performance of an Automotive Exhaust Muffler

2020-09-25
2020-28-0478
This research paper is dealing with development of a Hybrid Exhaust muffler with four different shell configuration (Internal design unaltered) and investigated the impact on noise quality (perceived) and noise performance. Noise performance has been evaluated by measurement of Pass by Noise and near exhaust noise Level on a typical 16T -6 speed transmission Truck. The experimental activity conducted based DOE approach. From this study, it observed single shell with lower thickness have the poor NVH performance and perceived quality as well. Shell or boom noise observed in this configuration. Double shell with Ceramic blanket (throughout the length) sandwich configuration exhibited the best performance though this design is most expensive among the four mufflers. Remain 2 Configuration (i.e. - Single shell of higher thickness and Double shell with Ceramic blanket only around reactive chamber) exhibited at per results in both perceived noise quality and Noise performance.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic study of occupant seating using near-vertical posture for shared mobility applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0519
Transportation system is at the brink of revolution and many new ways of mobility are arising in the market to ease the pressure on the established transportation infrastructure. Many companies and government around the world are exploring innovative options in the space of shared mobility to reduce the overall carbon footprint. To expedite the adoption of shared mobility based travelling options in India, it is necessary to make such options comfortable and cost-effective. To make the mobility option cost-effective, it is important to comfortably allow as many passengers per vehicle foot-print as possible. This paper aims to evaluate a novel method of occupant seating to maximize the number of passages the vehicle cabin can accommodate. Since shared mobility options are used for a short duration of commute, the comfort of the seat can be compromised for increasing the no. of occupants. This paper studies the relation between occupant comfort and the inclination of seat cushion.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Contact Pressure Existance in Sealing Structure

2020-09-25
2020-28-0343
Sealing is one of the important components in automotive and aerospace industry. The primary function of lip seal is to protect contamination and retaining the lubricant. This investigation relates to study of contact pressure existence on dynamic sealing. Sealing for steering intermediate shaft requires sliding motion between shaft and seal as well as protection of lubricant from contamination and retention. Contact pressure analysis of Steering intermediate shaft with hyper elastic rubber seal is done at static as well as sliding condition using ABAQUS. Experiments were also conducted to check contact pressure between seal and shaft by using Fuji-pressure film sensor. The result from CAE analysis was compared with experimental data. This analysis of contact pressure helps to support enough interference between seal and shaft with satisfies the need of sealing as well as sliding in intermediate shaft.
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