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Training / Education

Sound Package Materials for Vehicle Noise Control

2021-09-15
The sound package materials for vehicle noise control seminar provides a detail and thorough analysis of three different classes of acoustical materials - namely absorbers, barriers, and dampers, how they are different from each other, and acoustical properties that materials should possess for optimum vehicle noise control. The seminar addresses new advances in acoustical materials, primarily in absorption materials that impact the vehicle acoustics. The seminar covers ways to evaluate the acoustical performance of these materials using different test methods, including material, component, and vehicle level measurements.
Training / Education

Road Noise Control Technology

2021-09-15
Sound quality is one of the most important desired attributes for the customers, and road noise is one of the most vital factors influencing sound quality. Road noise is the major interior noise source, especially for EVs, and it is a common customer complaint. In order to improve the customers’ satisfaction and market share, almost all the OEMs have spent lots of sources on the road noise attenuation.
Training / Education

Vibration Analysis Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

2020-11-09
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Coupling Analysis of Thermal Buckling and Vibration in Disc Brakes

2020-10-05
2020-01-1606
Non-uniform high temperature gradient is generated on the surface of brake disc during braking. This temperature gradient induces thermal buckling, a deformation characterized by either a coning mode or potato chip mode. In a rotating machinery vibration occurs with a natural frequency at a certain rotational speed, leading to a change in the contact conditions at the frictional interface. It may cause a redistribution of temperature and thus the thermal buckling modes. Meanwhile some vibration modes in a brake system can also be excited by the deformation modes of thermal buckling in the rotor. The coupled and uncoupled problems of thermal buckling and vibration are analyzed using an ABAQUS benchmark vented brake model. It is known that different assumptions of temperature, either in the radial or axial direction, may lead to different solutions of thermal buckling.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Narrow-Band Noise Generation by Automotive Cooling Fans

2020-09-30
2020-01-1513
Axial cooling fans are commonly used in electric vehicles to cool batteries with high heating load. One drawback of the cooling fans is the high aeroacoustic noise level resulting from the fan blades and the obstacles facing the airflow. To create a comfortable cabin environment in the vehicle, and to reduce exterior noise emission, a low-noise installation design of the axial fan is required. The purpose of the project is to develop an efficient computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulation process to assist the cooling-fan installation design. This paper reports the current progress of the development, where the narrow-band components of the fan noise is focused on. Two methods are used to compute the noise source. In the first method the source is computed from the flow field obtained using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady RANS, or URANS) model.
Technical Paper

Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

2020-09-30
2020-01-1527
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to.
Technical Paper

Tire NVH Optimization for Future Mobility

2020-09-30
2020-01-1520
Vehicle NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is one of the most critical customer touchpoints which may lead to buying decisions. The importance of Noise inside the cabin is increasing day by day because of the new era of E-mobility and autonomous driving. Noise source could be the engine, powertrain, tyre, suspension components, brake system, etc. depending on driving conditions. Among these, tire noise is being identified as biggest contributor at constant mid-speed driving where engine and powertrain operate at minimum noise and wind noise is also at a moderate level. This driving condition becomes very significant for electric vehicles where engine noise is replaced by motor noise which is a tonal noise at very high frequency. This makes the improvement of tire noise levels quintessential for good cabin acoustic feel. This demands a proactive approach to develop low noise tire platforms for future mobility by leveraging research tools and best practices in the industry.
Technical Paper

Squeak Noise Prediction of a Door Trim Panel Using Harmonic Balance Method

2020-09-30
2020-01-1577
Squeak and rattle noise in a vehicle's interior is perceived as an annoying sound by customers. Since persistent noise (e.g. engine, wind, or drive train noise) has been reduced continuously during the last decades, the elimination of sounds, which have their origin in the vehicle's interior components, is getting more important. Therefore, noise prediction based on simulation models is useful, since design changes can be realized at lower costs in early virtual development phases. For this task, linear simulation methods are state of the art for the identification of noise risk, but in general without knowing if a sound is audible or not. First approaches have been developed based on the Harmonic Balance Method to predict squeak noise and assess their audibility. This paper presents vibroacoustic measurements at a door trim panel for squeaking and non-squeaking configurations. Vibrations are excited harmonically by a force controlled low noise shaker.
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