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Training / Education

AS91002016 Rev D Understanding the Requirements

2021-06-17
Individuals responsible for quality management system, implementation, and auditing to the AS9100:2016 series of standards for Aviation, Space, and Defense will require an understanding of the requirements for the preparation and execution of the audit process as defined in these revised standards. Management and implementers of AS9100:2016 Rev. D within these organizations must also be aware of what these requirements mean for their company.
Training / Education

Applying DO-254 for Avionics Hardware Development and Certification

2021-05-06
The avionics hardware industry world-wide is now commonly required to follow DO-254 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware for literally all phases of development: Safety, Requirements, Design, Logic Implementation, V&V, Quality Assurance, etc. The DO-254 standard is a companion to the software DO-178B standard; however, there are many differences between hardware and software which must be understood. This basic course introduces the intent of the DO-254 standard for commercial avionics hardware development.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Training / Education

Critical Concepts of Tolerance Stacks 2009 3-day

2020-10-20
This course, based on the ASME Y14.5-2009 standard, provides an in-depth explanation of how to use tolerance stacks to analyze product designs and how to use geometric tolerances in stacks. You will learn the essential methods and concepts used for creating 1D part and assembly tolerance stacks.
Technical Paper

Transitioning from IC Engine to Electric Vehicle: An Optimized Wheel End Solution

2020-10-05
2020-01-1632
This paper discusses the change in vehicle parameters when moving from a conventional internal combustion engine to electric motor. It discusses the impact on the wheel end bearings. Typically these include higher GAWRs (Gross Axle Weight Rating) at lower center of gravity heights. These changes require bearings to handle higher loads. Typically, larger loads will increase the bearing size and with it the mounting interface dimensions to auxiliary components. Timken demonstrates an alternative bearing design that can handle higher vehicle GAWRs but would allow for continuity in the surrounding brake corner components – saving OEMs significant design costs and delays.
Technical Paper

A Full-System Approach to Maximise Energy Efficiency of a Wheel Bearing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1631
Environmental sustainability is morphing Automotive technical development strategies and driving the evolution of vehicles with a speed and a strength hardly foreseeable a decade ago. The entire vehicle architecture is impacted, and energy efficiency becomes one of the most important parameters to reach goals, which are now not only market demands, but also based on regulatory standards with penalty consequences. Therefore, rolling drag from all bearings in multiple rotating parts of the vehicle needs to be reduced; wheel bearings are among the biggest in size regardless of the powertrain architecture (ICE, Hybrid, BEV) and have a significant impact. The design of wheel bearings is a complex balance between features influencing durability, robustness, vehicle dynamics, and, of course, energy efficiency.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Structural Parameters on the Linear Control Performance of High Speed On-Off Valve Based on Flow Field Analysis

2020-10-05
2020-01-1644
High speed on-off valve under the control of high frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) can make control linearly as proportional valve does. It is because its valve opening is adjusted linearly by duty ratio within a certain range. It is significant for high speed on-off valve to achieve precise linear control performance. In practice the performance is influenced not only by control strategy, but also the structural parameters of the valve, such as seat angle, spool diameter of valve and so on. In this paper, it is indicated that the effects of structural parameters on linear control performance of high speed on-off valve is exerted by flow force since different structural parameters bring about different valve opening-flow force characteristics. Accordingly, the relationship between the valve structural parameters and flow force is emphasized.
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