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Technical Paper

Design Details of the Compression Ignition Rotating Liner Engine. Reducing Piston Assembly Friction and Ring/Liner Wear in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2012-09-24
2012-01-1963
The Rotating Liner Engine (RLE) is an engine design concept where the cylinder liner rotates in order to reduce piston assembly friction and liner/ring wear. The reduction is achieved by the elimination of the mixed and boundary lubrication regimes that occur near TDC. Prior engines for aircraft developed during WW2 with partly rotating liners (Sleeve Valve Engines or SVE) have exhibited reduction of bore wear by factor of 10 for high BMEP operation, which supports the elimination of mixed lubrication near the TDC area via liner rotation. Our prior research on rotating liner engines experimentally proved that the boundary/mixed components near TDC are indeed eliminated, and a high friction reduction was quantified compared to a baseline engine. The added friction required to rotate the liner is hydrodynamic via a modest sliding speed, and is thus much smaller than the mixed and boundary friction that is eliminated.
Technical Paper

Comparison of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic PM Sensor with Laboratory Instruments Using a 2009 Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0627
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
Technical Paper

Further Development of an On-Board Distillation System for Generating a Highly Volatile Cold-Start Fuel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0233
The On-Board Distillation System (OBDS) extracts, from gasoline, a highly volatile crank fuel that enables simultaneous reduction of start-up fuel enrichment and significant ignition timing retard during cold-starting. In a previous paper we reported reductions in catalyst light-off time of >50% and THC emissions reductions >50% over Phase I of the FTP drive cycle. The research presented herein is a further development of the OBDS concept. For this work, OBDS was improved to yield higher-quality start-up fuel. The PCM calibration was changed as well, in order to improve the response to intake manifold pressure transients. The test vehicle was tested over the 3-phase FTP, with exhaust gases speciated to determine NMOG and exhaust toxics emissions. Also, the effectiveness of OBDS at generating a suitable starting fuel from a high driveability index test gasoline was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors that Affect the Performance of Railplugs

2005-04-11
2005-01-0252
As natural gas engines are designed to operate leaner and with increased boost pressure, durability of the spark plugs becomes problematic. Among the various new ignition devices that have been considered to solve some of the problems facing spark plugs, railplugs appear to hold clear advantages in some areas. There are two types of railplugs: coaxial rail and parallel rail. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of various parameters that affect the performance of parallel railplugs. Their performance was quantified by the distance that the arc traveled along the rails from the initiation point. Travel along the rails is thought to be an important performance metric because rail-travel limits excessive local wear and produces a distributed ignition source which can potentially reduce mixture inhomogeneity induced ignition problems.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Reduction Through Liner Rotation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1652
Cylinder liner rotation (Rotating Liner Engine, RLE) is a new concept for reducing piston assembly friction in the internal combustion engine. The purpose of the RLE is to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of boundary and mixed lubrication friction in the piston assembly (specifically, the rings and skirt). This paper reports the results of experiments to quantify the potential of the RLE. A 2.3 L GM Quad 4 SI engine was converted to single cylinder operation and modified for cylinder liner rotation. To allow examination of the effects of liner rotational speed, the rotating liner is driven by an electric motor. A torque cell in the motor output shaft is used to measure the torque required to rotate the liner. The hot motoring method was used to compare the friction loss between the baseline engine and the rotating liner engine. Additionally, hot motoring tear-down tests were used to measure the contribution of each engine component to the total friction torque.
Technical Paper

Voltage, and Energy Deposition Characteristics of Spark Ignition Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-0231
Time-resolved current and voltage measurements for an inductive automotive spark system were made. Also presented are measurements of the total energy delivered to the spark gap. The measurements were made in air for a range of pressures from 1-18 atm, at ambient temperatures. The measured voltage and current characteristics were found to be a function of many ignition parameters; some of these include: spark gap distance, internal resistance of the spark plug and high tension wire, and pressure. The voltages presented were measured either at the top of the spark plug or at the spark gap. The measurements were made at different time resolutions to more accurately resolve the voltage and current behavior throughout the discharge process. This was necessary because the breakdown event occurs on a time scale much shorter than the arc and glow phases.
Technical Paper

Impact of Railplug Circuit Parameters on Energy Deposition and Durability

2003-10-27
2003-01-3135
A railplug is a new type of ignitor for SI engines. A model for optimizing energy deposition in a railplug ignition system is developed. The model is experimentally validated using a low voltage railplug ignition circuit. The effect of various ignition circuit parameters on the energy deposition and its rate are discussed. Durability of railplugs is an important factor in railplug circuit design. As for all spark ignitors, durability of a railplug decreases as energy deposition is increased. Therefore recommendations are made to minimize wear and increase durability, while depositing sufficient energy to attain ignition, using a railplug.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility, Load, and Speed on HC Emissions Due to Piston Wetting

2001-05-07
2001-01-2024
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In a previous study, we used a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure on the HC emissions due to piston wetting. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. All of these prior tests of fuel effects were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). In the present study, the effects of load and engine speed are examined.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Parameters on Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine During Constant Speed, Variable Load Tests

2000-06-19
2000-01-1909
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested at constant engine speed (2000 rpm) over a range of loads. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. This allowed examination of the engine-out emissions for late and early injection. Seven fuels were used for these tests: five blended fuels and two pure hydrocarbon fuels. These seven fuels can be divided into groups for examination of the effects of volatility, MTBE, and structure (an aromatic versus an i-alkane). Correlations between the fuel properties and their effects on emissions are presented. Use of steady state tests rather than driving cycles to examine fuel effects on emissions eliminates the complications resulting from accelerations, decelerations, and changes of injection timing but care had to be taken to account for the periodic regenerations of the lean NOx trap/catalyst.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Parameters on FTP Emissions of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1907
The effects of fuel properties on the emissions of a production vehicle with a gasoline direct injection engine operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle were investigated. The vehicle used was a 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. Engine-out and tailpipe FTP emissions for six fuels and a California Phase 2 RFG reference fuel are presented. Four of the test fuels were blended from refinery components to meet specified distillation profiles. The remaining test fuels were iso-octane and toluene, an iso-alkane and an aromatic with essentially the same boiling point (at atmospheric pressure) that is near the T50 point for the blended fuels. Statistically significant effects, at the 95% confidence level, of the fuels on tailpipe emissions were found. Correlations were sought between the properties of the five blends and the Emissions Indices for engine-out hydrocarbons and NOx and for tailpipe particulates.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Dynamics and Fuel Vapor Concentration Near the Spark Plug in a Direct-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0497
The mixture preparation process was investigated in a direct-injected, 4-valve, SI engine under motored conditions. The engine had a transparent cylinder liner that allowed the fuel spray to be imaged using laser sheet Mie scattering. A fiber optic probe was used to measure the vapor phase fuel concentration history at the spark plug location between the two intake valves. The fuel injector was located on the cylinder axis. Two flow fields were examined; the stock configuration (tumble index 1.4) and a high tumble (tumble index 3.4) case created using shrouded intake valves. The fuel spray was visualized with the engine motored at 750 and 1500 RPM. Start of injection timings of 90°, 180° and 270° after TDC of intake were examined. The imaging showed that the fuel jet is greatly distorted for the high tumble condition, particularly at higher engine speeds. The tumble was large enough to cause significant cylinder wall wetting under the exhaust valves for some conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0502
The effect of combustion chamber wall-wetting on the emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs) from gasoline-fueled SI engines was investigated experimentally. A spark-plug mounted directional injection probe was developed to study the fate of liquid fuel which impinges on different surfaces of the combustion chamber, and to quantify its contribution to the HC emissions from direct-injected (DI) and port-fuel injected (PFI) engines. With this probe, a controlled amount of liquid fuel was deposited on a given location within the combustion chamber at a desired crank angle while the engine was operated on pre-mixed LPG. Thus, with this technique, the HC emissions due to in-cylinder wall wetting were studied independently of all other HC sources. Results from these tests show that the location where liquid fuel impinges on the combustion chamber has a very important effect on the resulting HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Spray/Charge-Motion Interaction within the Cylinder of a Direct-Injected, 4-Valve, SI Engine

1998-02-23
980155
The mixture preparation process was investigated in a direct-injected, 4-valve, SI engine under motored conditions. The interaction between the high-pressure fuel jet and the intake air-flow was observed. Laser-sheet droplet imaging was used to visualize the in-cylinder droplet distributions, and a single-component LDV system was used to measure in-cylinder velocities. The fuel spray was visualized with the engine motored at 1500 and 750 rpm, and with the engine stopped. It was observed that the shape of the fuel spray was distorted by the in-cylinder air motion generated by the intake air flow, and that this effect became more pronounced with increasing engine speed. Velocity measurements were made at five locations on the symmetry plane of the cylinder, with the engine motored at 750 rpm. Comparison of these measurements with, and without, injection revealed that the in-cylinder charge motion was significantly altered by the injection event.
Technical Paper

Condensation of Fuel on Combustion Chamber Surfaces as a Mechanism for Increased HC Emissions from SI Engines During Cold Start

1997-10-01
972884
Condensation of fuel vapor on the cold surfaces within the combustion chamber is investigated as a possible mechanism for increased HC emissions from SI engines during cold start. A one-dimensional, transient, mass diffusion analysis is used to examine the condensation of single-species fuels on the surfaces of the combustion chamber as the pressure within the cylinder rises during compression and combustion, and re-vaporization during expansion, blowdown, and exhaust. The effects of wall temperature, fuel volatility, and engine load and speed on this mechanism are also discussed. This analysis shows that low-volatility fuel components can condense on the surfaces of the combustion chamber when the surface temperatures are sufficiently low. This condensed fuel may re-vaporize during the power and exhaust strokes, or it may remain in the combustion chamber until surface temperatures rise, perhaps tens of seconds later.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation During Cranking in a Port-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine

1997-10-01
972982
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the fuel-air mixing process in a port-fuel-injected, 4-valve, spark-ignited engine that was motored to simulate cold cranking and start-up conditions. An infrared fiber-optic instrumented spark plug probe was used to measure the local, crank angle resolved, fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap of a single-cylinder research engine with a production head and fuel injector. The crank-angle resolved fuel concentrations were compared for various injection timings including open-intake-valve (OIV) and closed-intake-valve (CIV) injection, using federal certification gasoline. In addition, the effects of speed, intake manifold pressure, and injected fuel mass were examined.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Transport During the First Cranking Cycles in a Port Injected 4-Valve Engine

1997-02-24
970043
Fuel transport was visualized within the cylinder of a port injected four-valve SI engine having a transparent cylinder liner. Measurements were made while motoring at 250 rpm to simulate cranking conditions prior to the first firing cycle, and at 750 rpm to examine the effects of engine speed. A production GM Quad-4 cylinder head was used, and the stock single-jet port fuel injector was used to inject indolene. A digital camera was used to capture back-lighted images of cylinder wall wetting for open and closed intake valve injection. In addition, two-dimensional planar imaging of Mie scattering from the indolene fuel droplets was used to characterize the fuel droplet distribution as a function of crank angle for open and closed intake valve injection. LDV was used to measure the droplet and air velocities near the intake valves during fuel induction. It was found that with open-valve injection a large fraction of the fuel impinged on the cylinder wall opposite the intake valves.
Technical Paper

Development of a Semi-Detailed Kinetics Mechanism for the Autoignition of Iso-Octane

1996-10-01
962107
A reduced autoignition mechanism for iso-octane has been developed by identifying paths to formation of the stable species measured during motoring knock experiments and eliminating paths to formation of species that were not measured. The resulting mechanism includes low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature reactions and consists of 103 species and 131 reactions. This mechanism differs from detailed models not only in the number of reactions and species, but most importantly, in the nature and rates of the degenerate chain branching reactions. To implement this mechanism, a knock subroutine has been added to a quasidimensional spark ignition engine model that accounts for heat losses, blowby, etc. Thus, errors in the reactivity predictions can be assigned almost exclusively to the kinetics. Numerical predictions of the exhaust composition during motoring knock are compared with experimental measurements as a function of compression ratio for several operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in SI Engines with a Peninsula-Fractal Combustion Model

1996-02-01
960072
In premixed turbulent combustion models, two mechanisms have been used to explain the increase in the flame speed due to the turbulence. The newer explanation considers the full range of turbulence scales which wrinkle the flame front so as to increase the flame front area and, thus, the flame propagation speed. The fractal combustion model is an example of this concept. The older mechanism assumes that turbulence enables the penetration of unburned mixtures across the flame front via entrainment into the burned mixture zone. The entrainment combustion or eddy burning model is an example of this mechanism. The results of experimental studies of combustion regimes and the flame structures in SI engines has confirmed that most combustion takes place at the wrinkled flame front with additional combustion taking place in the form of flame fingers or peninsulas.
Technical Paper

Diluents and Lean Mixture Combustion Modeling for SI Engines with a Quasi-Dimensional Model

1995-10-01
952382
Lean mixture combustion might be an important feature in the next generation of SI engines, while diluents (internal and external EGR) have already played a key role in the reductions of emissions and fuel consumption. Lean burn modeling is even more important for engine modeling tools which are sometimes used for new engine development. The effect of flame strain on flame speed is believed to be significant, especially under lean mixture conditions. Current quasi-dimensional engine models usually do not include flame strain effects and tend to predict burn rate which is too high under lean burn conditions. An attempt was made to model flame strain effects in quasi-dimensional SI engine models. The Ford model GESIM (stands for General Engine SIMulation) was used as the platform. A new strain rate model was developed with the Lewis number effect included.
Technical Paper

A Multidimensional Numerical Model for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Fractal Geometries

1995-10-01
952386
We present a multidimensional numerical model that calculates turbulent premixed flame propagation, assuming the flames have fractal geometries. Two scaling transformations, previously developed for laminar flames, are used to incorporate the fractal burning model in KIVA-II1, a numerical hydrodynamics code for chemically reactive flows. In this work the model is implemented for propane/air mixtures. For applications to internal combustion engines, we have also developed a fractal model for early flame kernel growth. Our multidimensional model can be used in experimental comparisons to test postulated fractal parameters, and we begin this task by comparing calculated results with measurements of propane/air combustion in a spark ignition engine. Good agreement is obtained between computed and measured flame positions and pressures in all cases except a low engine speed case.
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