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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study Assessing the Viability of Shifting the Location of Peak In-Cylinder Pressure in Motored Experiments

2020-09-27
2020-24-0009
Some hybrid powertrains utilize an engine to benefit from the power density of the liquid fuel while the electric machine; for transient needs, for very low loads and where legislation prohibits any gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, the operating drive cycle of an engine also shifted from its conventional, broad range of speed and load to a narrower operating range of high thermal efficiency. This requires a drastic departure from conventional engine architecture, meaning that analytical models used to predict the behaviour of the engines early in the design cycle are no longer always applicable. Friction models are an example of sub-models which struggle with previously unexplored engine architectures. The pressurized motored method has proven to be a simple experimental setup which allows a robust FMEP determination against which engine friction simulation can be fine-tuned.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

Influence of Titanium Oxide nanoparticle on Solar Desalination with Phase change Material

2020-09-25
2020-28-0464
The present study is focused on the significance of solar desalination heat storage method. The Solar energy is a prime source of energy existing directly or indirectly from the nature. The primary drawback of solar energy, which is existing in hours of only. Thermal storage devices can overcome this problem as they can store the energy in daylight that can be utilized in off sunshine hours. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the increase in productivity of the solar desalination by using phase change material and combination of PCM with TiO2 (Nano Materials). The present work is focused on performance of solar water desalination using Phase Change Materials along with TiO2 Nano-materials. The Titanium Oxide Nano particle were synthesized by Sol-Gel method. The Titanium oxide Nano materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, FTIR etc. In this experiment paraffin 34-carbons is used as phase change materials and Titanium Oxide Nano material used for energy storage materials.
Technical Paper

Design and analyse of air intake in manifold student formula vehicle

2020-09-25
2020-28-0485
The SAE organization constrained a rule to place a restrictor of diameter 20mm in between the throttle body and the engine inlet . The restrictor is an component which reduces and regulates the mass flow of air into the engine inlet. For this a venture nozzle will be used as a restrictor in vehicle to decrease the air pressure and increase the velocity in the intake manifold . The aim of our proposed work is to minimize the pressure drop by changing the convergent and divergent angles in the restrictor. For this by using solidworks sixteen various models with convergent angle as 11,13,15,17 degrees and divergent angle as 3,5,7,9 degrees was designed and analysed using CFD fluent in ansys work bench. In this 13 degree as convergent and 5 degree as divergent model was found to have laminar air flow through out with optimum pressure drop. The plenum is a large duct which equalise the pressure drop caused by restrictor in order to improve the efficiency of engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of A Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using Amesim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic study of occupant seating using near-vertical posture for shared mobility applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0519
Transportation system is at the brink of revolution and many new ways of mobility are arising in the market to ease the pressure on the established transportation infrastructure. Many companies and government around the world are exploring innovative options in the space of shared mobility to reduce the overall carbon footprint. To expedite the adoption of shared mobility based travelling options in India, it is necessary to make such options comfortable and cost-effective. To make the mobility option cost-effective, it is important to comfortably allow as many passengers per vehicle foot-print as possible. This paper aims to evaluate a novel method of occupant seating to maximize the number of passages the vehicle cabin can accommodate. Since shared mobility options are used for a short duration of commute, the comfort of the seat can be compromised for increasing the no. of occupants. This paper studies the relation between occupant comfort and the inclination of seat cushion.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Contact Pressure Existance in Sealing Structure

2020-09-25
2020-28-0343
Sealing is one of the important components in automotive and aerospace industry. The primary function of lip seal is to protect contamination and retaining the lubricant. This investigation relates to study of contact pressure existence on dynamic sealing. Sealing for steering intermediate shaft requires sliding motion between shaft and seal as well as protection of lubricant from contamination and retention. Contact pressure analysis of Steering intermediate shaft with hyper elastic rubber seal is done at static as well as sliding condition using ABAQUS. Experiments were also conducted to check contact pressure between seal and shaft by using Fuji-pressure film sensor. The result from CAE analysis was compared with experimental data. This analysis of contact pressure helps to support enough interference between seal and shaft with satisfies the need of sealing as well as sliding in intermediate shaft.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Effect of Synchronizer Strut Detent Groove Profile on Static and Dynamic Gear Shift Quality of a Manual Transmission

2020-09-25
2020-28-0319
Automotive manufacturers are constantly working towards enhancing the driving experience of the customers. In this context, improving the static and dynamic gear shift quality plays a major role in ensuring a pleasant and comfortable driving experience. Moreover, the gear shift quality of any manual transmission is mainly defined by the design of the synchronizer system. In the present work, the static and dynamic shift quality of a 300 Nm manual transmission is analyzed with different synchronizer sleeve strut detent profiles. The synchronizer sleeve strut detent groove profile play a vital role in defining the performance of the synchronizer system by generating the minimum required pre-synchronization force. This force is important to move the outer synchronizer ring (blocker ring) to the required index position and to wipe-out the oil from the conical friction surfaces to build rapid high cone torque.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Parameters on performance and emission of DI Diesel Engine Fueled by 1,4-Dioxane Emulsified Fuel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0518
The pattern of utilizing the water/diesel emulsion fuels in engines has been given great importance due to its eco-friendly nature and minimal exhaustion of petroleum reserves. This investigation displays the impact of 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel on performance and emissions at various operating pressures. 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel (DWA10) was prepared with 10% 1,4-dioxane, 10% water, 0.2% surfactant and 79.8% diesel. To estimate the engine performance and emissions, the engine was operated with 180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar operating pressures and the output was equated with diesel fuel operating on normal pressure of 200 bar. BTE of 1, 4-dioxane emulsified fuel at 220 bar was higher when compared with diesel fuel. CO, HC and BSEC were lower at 220 bar when compare with diesel fuel. However, NOx was found to increase for the higher operating pressure.
Standard

Aircraft Wheel Inflation Valves Incorporating an Inflation Pressure Gauge

2020-09-16
WIP
ARP5543A
This specification covers the recommended design, construction, performance and testing requirements for aircraft wheel inflation valves incorporating an inflation pressure gauge which are mounted on the aircraft wheel. These valve/gauge assemblies should be appropriate for use on all aircraft types supported by tubeless tire/wheel assemblies.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Delay of Bio-Diesel and Its Blends

2020-09-15
2020-01-2152
In this work, the ignitjion delay of bio-diesel and its blends with diesel at atmospheric pressure and temperature 8500C has been studied. The results are compared to those for diesel oil. Specifically, the suspended fuel droplet is inserted into a hot combustion chamber containing atmospheric air at temperatures which varied from 6250 - 8500C. The fuel droplet is suspended on the fine silica fibre wire of diameter 550 micron. It is mounted on rod and inserted in the hot combustion chamber at atmospheric condition. The ignition of the droplet is observed by optical circuit (optical sensor) and recorded by CRO. The ignition time is determined for calculating ignition delay. The results are plotted on the ignition delay ln(t) - 1/Temperature, K-1 coordinates to obtain the value of Activation Energy, EA. It has been found that the value of Activation Energy, EA is 44.3kJ for bio-diesel and 53.4kJ for diesel.
Technical Paper

Determination of Kinematic Parameters for the Combustion of Jatropha Based Bio-Diesel

2020-09-15
2020-01-2148
Laminar burning velocity is a fundamental measurement describing how a flame propagates into quiescent unburned mixture ahead of the flame at a specified pressure and temperature. Laminar burning velocity of bio-diesel air mixture has been studied in a spherical bomb, using the pressure - time records. Initial pressure, temperature is varied to cover a range from 1 bar - 4 bar and 443K-523K respectively. The range of measurements covered the equivalence ratio from 0.8 to 1.2. Pressure-time records have been used to calculate the flame velocity, burned gas fraction, flame position etc., using a simplified, two zone thermodynamic model, assuming equilibrium composition and homogenous mixture for the burned gases. It is also assumed frozen composition and isentropic compression for the unburned mixture.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Fuel Systems Boron-Containing Metalized Fuels for Vehicles

2020-09-15
2020-01-2155
Ensuring the highest efficiency and power trains performance of vehicles remains the most important function of their creators. It is currently difficult to deny the fact that there are limited hydrocarbon reserves for fuel production, and these reserves are constantly decreasing. In addition, the specific energy intensity of hydrocarbon fuel is insufficient for the effective operation of power trains of transport for different invironments such as outer space or inert atmosphere. Intensive development of promising kind of transport caused by the complexity of human activities and the need for simultaneous movement in various alternating environments (movement on land, in water, in airless space). To solve this problem, it is proposed to search for substitutes for hydrocarbon fuels. We have investigated the possibilities of using boron-containing metallized fuels. Boron-containing fuel was used as the main fuel.
Technical Paper

Soot Load Monitoring in Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications with RF-Sensors

2020-09-15
2020-01-2171
With the start of Euro 6d regulations, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) have become standard equipment in European vehicles with gasoline-direct-injection engines. GPFs will also be broadly applied to meet the upcoming China 6 regulations. An existing challenge with GPFs is accurate soot load detection to manage the pressure loss across the exhaust system and to protect the GPFs from soot overload, which could potentially cause damage as result of uncontrolled soot oxidations. Systems with the GPF located in the under-floor position have a higher potential risk of soot overload due to lower temperatures, which can result in higher soot accumulation rates. The accuracy of existing soot estimation methods such as evaluation of the pressure drop of the soot-loaded GPF or model-based balancing of soot accumulation versus soot oxidation rates are sensitive to transient operating condition of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Hybridized Diesel Powertrains for LCV Applications to Meet the Stringent 2025 Standards for Pollutant- and CO2-Emissions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2252
The ever-increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector poses challenges to the entire industry. Since the release of the new European CO2 fleet emission targets demanding a massive reduction in the upcoming years (-15%/-31% in 2025/2030 vs. the 2021 figures), substantial initiatives have been launched to ensure the development of affordable solutions. goals meeting the market requirements. Diesel powered vehicles and, especially Light-duty Diesel has been the main driver for CO2 emission reductions in recent years. These achievements were mainly based on improvement of combustion efficiency and reduction of mechanical losses. Based on this experience, it appears doubtful to achieve further significant fuel consumption and CO2 reductions with an improvement in engine technology alone. This reduction steps requested by the authorities call for the implementation of new technologies.
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