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The Basics of Internal Combustion Engines

In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Storage of Low Level Ethanol Blends in Small Engines

This study examined the effects of storing gasoline (E0) and low level ethanol blends (E10, E15, E20) in small engines over a 12 month period. Many variables were monitored or controlled in order to determine if ethanol blended fuels affected small engines during storage. A sample size of 64 engines was used to reduce the effects of normal engine to engine performance variations and analyze trends with the different fuel blends. For the study, 32 handheld 2-stroke engines with a cube carburetor (leaf blowers) and 32 non-handheld 4-stroke consumer grade small engines with a float carburetor (gensets) were tested. These engines were selected to represent many different types of equipment on the market and for ease of loading during the study. The engines were measured after initial purchase, after 6 months of storage, and after 12 months of storage to check for changes.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption for SI Engines by Combing with Glow Plug Heated Sub-chamber and Lean Burn

Lean burn gasoline engines can achieve noteworthy fuel consumption and power output. However, when the mixture becomes lean, the ignition delay increases, and the flame propagation speed becomes slow, which lead to increase the combustion fluctuation. The glow plug is usually used to solve the cold start problem in diesel engines, where the compression temperature might not be high enough to ensure the proper ignition of the injected fuel, resulting in instability combustion and increased exhaust emissions. Based on this point, the present study intends to install a glow plug to the sub-chamber. Experiments were conducted on a modified single cylinder four-stroke CI engine (YANMAR TF120V) to operate as SI engine with a higher compression ratio compared to the conventional SI engines, 15.1:1. The engine is operated at a constant speed of 1000 rpm for different equivalence ratios with different voltage of glow plug which creates the temperature variation inside the sub-chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

A Concept Investigation Simulation Model on Hybrid Powertrains for Handheld Tools

Amid the increasing demand for higher efficiency in combustion driven handheld tools, the recent developments in electric machine technology together with the already existing benefits of small combustion engines for these applications favor the investigation of potential advantages in hybrid powertrain tools. This concept-design study aims to use a fully parametric, system-level simulation model with exchangeable blocks, created with a power-loss approach in Matlab and Simulink, in order to examine the potential of different hybrid configurations for different tool load cycles. After the model introduction, the results of numerous simulations for 36 to 100 cc engine displacement will be presented and compared in terms of overall system efficiency and overall powertrain size. The different optimum hybrid configurations can show a reduction of up to 30 % in system’s brake specific fuel consumption compared to the baseline combustion engine driven model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on Evaporation Characteristics of Fuels for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Application

The combustion and emission formation in the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) engine strategies are highly sensitive to fuel molecular composition and properties. Ignition timing in LTC is primarily controlled by fuel chemical kinetics and thus, tailoring of fuel properties is required to address its limitations in-terms of lack of control on ignition timing and narrow operating load range. Utilizing fuel blends and additives such as nanoparticles are one of the promising approaches to achieve targeted fuel property. An improved understanding of fundamental processes including fuel evaporation is required owing to its role in fuel-air mixing and thereby emission formation in LTC. In the present work, evaporation characteristics of blends of commercial fuels, viz. gasoline, diesel and alternative fuels, viz. ethanol and butanol are investigated. Further, graphene based nanoadditives at 0.05 wt % in gasoline, diesel and butanol are also investigated.