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Improving Fuel Efficiency with Engine Oils

2019-05-06
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized.
Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Piston - Design Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0243
Variable compression ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. This paper presents a design of hydraulically actuated piston based on the VCR piston proposed by the British Internal Combustion Engine Research Institute (BICERI). In this design, the compression height of the piston automatically changes in response to engine cylinder pressure by controlling the lubrication oil flow via valves in the piston. In addition, numerical models including piston kinetic model, oil hydraulic model, compression ratio model and etc., have been established to evaluate the piston properties. The oil flow characteristics between two chambers in VCR piston have been investigated and the response behaviors of VCR engine and normal engine, such as compression pressure and peak cylinder pressure, are compared at different engine loads.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Ignition of a Single Lubricating Oil Droplet in Premixed Combustible Mixture at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0298
The ignition of lubricating oil droplet has been proved to be the main factor for pre-ignition and the following super-knock in turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. In this paper, the ignition process of lubricating oil droplet in combustible ambient gaseous mixture was investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The pre-ignition induction by oil droplet of the ambient gaseous mixture was analyzed under different initial droplet volume and effective temperature conditions. The oil droplet was suspended on a tungsten fiber in the combustion chamber and the ignition process was recorded by a high-speed camera through the quartz window mounted at the end of the combustion chamber. The pressure traces were also obtained by a sensor in order to get the ignition delay and analyze the combustion process in detail.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Increase Level of Vibration in an Internal Combustion Engine due to the Degradation of the Lubricating Oil

2019-04-02
2019-01-0780
When analyzing vibrations in internal combustion engines, it is noticed that the greatest sources of vibrations are generated by combustion and mechanical forces. These forces occur over a wide frequency range and are transmitted to the outer surface of the engine through several paths, such as through the piston mechanism, connecting rod, crankshaft and engine block. As a result of the action of these forces, the external surfaces of the engine are subjected to vibrations of various amplitudes. Vibration problems in internal combustion engines are common due to the wide variety of parts and components that make up such engines. The crankshaft undergoes transverse, longitudinal and torsional vibrations due to the dynamics of the stresses sustained mainly during the combustion phase of the engine.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
Technical Paper

Soot in the Lubricating Oil: An Overlooked Concern for the Gasoline Direct Injection Engine?

2019-04-02
2019-01-0301
Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collected from the oil sump after periods of use in predominantly urban driving conditions with start-stop mode activated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to measure the soot content in the drained oils. Soot deposition rates were similar to previously reported rates for diesel engines, i.e. 1 wt% per 15,000 km, thus indicating a similar importance. Morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Images showed fractal agglomerates comprising multiple primary particles with characteristic core-shell nanostructure. Furthermore, large amorphous structures were observed. Primary particle sizes ranged from 12 to 55 nm, with a mean diameter of 30 nm and mode at 31 nm.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Oil Transport between Piston Skirt and Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0590
The distribution of lubricating oil plays a critical role in determining the friction between piston skirt and cylinder liner, which is one of the major contributors to the total friction loss in internal combustion engines. In this work, based upon the experimental observation an existing model for the piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication was improved with a physics-based model describing the oil film separation from full film to partial film. Then the model was applied to a modern turbo-charged SI engine. The piston-skirt FMEP predicted by the model decreased with larger installation clearance, which was also observed from the measurements using IMEP method at the rated. It was found that the main period of the cycle exhibiting friction reduction is in the expansion stroke when the skirt only contacts the thrust side for all tested installation clearances.
Technical Paper

The Influence of IC Engine Working Condition on the Lubrication Characteristics of Piston Ring

2019-04-02
2019-01-0591
The lubrication analysis of IC engine piston ring is usually carried out under engine rated working condition. In actual use, the IC engine (especially the vehicle engine) does not always operate in rated working condition, and its working condition will be changed frequently. In this paper, an IC engine is taken as the studying object, based on the measured gas pressure in the engine cylinder, the lubrication characteristics of piston ring under different engine working conditions is analyzed in which the transport of lubricating oil between the piston ring and the cylinder liner is considered. The results indicate that the engine working condition has remarkable influence on the lubrication characteristics of IC engine piston ring. The worst lubrication status of piston ring may not occurred in the engine rated working condition.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Fuel Economy Retention from an Ultra-Low Ash Heavy Duty Engine Oil

2019-04-02
2019-01-0732
Diesel particulate filters are remarkably efficient in reducing emissions of particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines. However, their efficiency and performance are negatively impacted by contaminants derived from consumed engine lubricant. This accumulation of incombustible ash imparts a fuel economy penalty due to increased system backpressure and demand for more frequent regeneration events. This study documents a systematic evaluation of lubricant impacts on DPF ash loading, system performance, and fuel economy. A novel, ultra-low ash heavy-duty engine oil demonstrates significant advantages in aged systems when compared to tests using conventional lubricants. The ultra-low ash oil yields a significantly lower ash loading that is also more dense therefore offering extended DPF maintenance interval and potential for 3% fuel economy retention benefit. These advantages offer potential for significant reduction in cost to operate and maintain a DPF equipped engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of Production Lubricant Composition and Fuel Dilution on Stochastic Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0256
The occurrence of abnormal combustion events leading to high peak pressures and severe knock can be considered to be one of the main challenges for modern turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. These abnormal combustion events have been referred to as Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). The events are characterized by an undesired, early start of combustion of the cylinder charge which occurs before or in parallel to the intended flame kernel development from the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are often referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock. These heavy knock events lead to strong pressure oscillations which can destroy production engines within a few occurrences. SPI occurs mainly at low engine speed and high engine load, thus limiting the engine operating area that is in particular important to achieve good drivability in downsized engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Test Method to Discriminate Engine Oils and Additives in Terms of Motoring Torque

2019-04-02
2019-01-0589
Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in emissions are the two major driving forces in the advancement of automotive engine technologies, fuel quality, lubricants, and aftertreatment devices. Engine design, operating conditions such as speed and load, and engine oil behavior have a significant influence on engine friction and then the vehicle fuel economy. There is no standard short duration engine test available to evaluate engine oil’s friction. This study developed a test protocol to discriminate friction reduction efficacy of engine oils/additives to support in the development of engine oils. The engine test facility was modified to conduct the motoring test over the speed range of 1000 - 4500 rpm and at 50 - 100 °C coolant and oil temperatures. Different viscosity grades and additive chemistry i.e. combination of friction modifiers & viscosity modifiers was evaluated over the motored torque test.
Technical Paper

Gas Content in Lubricants of Modern Powertrain Systems - Development of a Continuous Volumetric Measurement Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0305
Our expectations in lubrication systems applied in modern powertrains are continually rising. Beginning with the basic function of cooling and lubricating tribological contacts such as cylinder liner and piston, bearings, gears, chain drives and various valve train contacts, the oil in the lubrication system is now increasingly being used as a hydraulic fluid. Examples are (fully) variable valve trains, variable compression ratio systems or complicated transmission hydraulics. Driven by the general trend to minimize mechanical losses in order to increase the overall powertrain efficiency, the introduction of variable capacity oil pumps is commonly seen in latest engine designs. The potential to decrease oil pressure levels and volumetric oil flow in order to minimize mechanical losses on the one hand significantly complicates the reliable fulfillment of the aforementioned tasks of the lube systems on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0796
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options. India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Sliding Wear Behavior of the Casted Lead Bronze Journal Bearing Material

2019-04-02
2019-01-0824
Lead (Pb) bronze material is used for the manufacturing of bearings. Lead provides less friction and wear-related properties to bronze. During working of the bearings the lead contained micro-chips mixes with the lubricant oil and makes its disposal difficult. Rotational speed and applied load are the two main parameters on which the working and amount of wear from the bearing depend. So it is important to find out an optimum set of speed and pressure on which a particular bearing should operate to minimize the wear and hence minimize the lead-contaminated lubricating oil. In the present work, Taguchi technique has been used to find out the optimum values of speed and pressure. To measure the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of the leaded bronze material, it is made to slide on a mild steel material and amount of wear and coefficient of friction has been recorded using a pin on disc machine using ASTM-G99 standards.
Technical Paper

Design of Catalyzed Gasoline Particulate Filter (cGPF) and Investigation of Its Durability Performance Using Accelerated Engine Aging

2019-04-02
2019-01-0970
Catalyzed gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) are one of the most effective emission control technologies for reducing gaseous and particulate emissions simultaneously. Successful adoption of this advanced technology relies on several important performance properties including low back pressure, high filtration efficiency and specially durability compliance. In this work using an underfloor cGPF, the backpressure control was achieved through optimizing catalyst coating technology and modifying the deposition profile of catalyst coating along GPF channels. Durability performance was demonstrated by using an accelerated engine aging method with selective blending of lubricating oils in fuel, which incorporates the aging mechanisms of thermal aging, ash loading, and soot accumulation/regeneration. The target durability demonstration represents 200,000 km real world operation.
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