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Technical Paper

Factors influencing the formation of soft particles in biodiesel

2020-09-27
2020-24-0006
In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increases. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 and B100 were studied.
Technical Paper

Oil Cooler Removal from Light duty Diesel Engines for Cost Reduction purpose

2020-09-25
2020-28-0333
Currently automotive design is facing multi facet challenges such as reduction in greenhouse gases, better thermal management, low cost solution to market, etc. Considering these challenges, effort has been taken to improve thermal management of engine while optimizing the cost of engine. Engine Lubrication system consist of Engine oil and oil cooler, which play vital role in thermal management as well as optimization of frictional losses by ensuring proper lubrication and cooling of engine components. For better thermal management of engine, a lubrication system is designed without Oil cooler, proto type made and tested. This paper deals with evaluation of various engine performance parameter and engine temperature with and without oil cooler for light duty Diesel engines on passenger car application. Further solution of Oil cooler removal and Engine cooling improvement with the help of oil change is validated at vehicle level to understand real world behavior of the system.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis of Compression Ignition Engine by Using the Blend of Refined Waste Engine Oil of Railway

2020-09-25
2020-28-0443
Due to depletion of fossil fuel reserves increase in energy demand from past to present stringent emission norms have led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Tendency of oil price have increased consecutively. Especially India has deficient amount of fossil fuel for this reason, India has to import fossil fuel, such as petroleum for domestic demand. In this context, waste oils of railway engine get refined by chemical process and then blended in different proportion with diesel. Blends were prepared as B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30. After blending each blend has experimented on diesel engine at different load condition. After experiment it was concluded that B30 was optimum blend for the desired values of parameters, B.P., B.S.F.C, BTE, T.F.C and QBP but the parameter Qs was found in maximum range for the blend B20 and EGT was found in minimum range for pure diesel and QEx and Qcw were in minimum range for blend B 10.
Technical Paper

Blend of extracts of hibiscus flowers and used cooking oil as bio-lubricant

2020-09-25
2020-28-0523
The mineral oil based conventional lubricants are consumed more and hence they get depleted rapidly. The environmental issues and non-biodegradability of mineral oil necessitates the search for an alternative lubricant. The present work deals with the development of a bio-lubricant by blending extracts of hibiscus flowers in used cooking oil. The addition of extracts of hibiscus flowers enhances the viscosity and tribological characteristics of the used cooking oil. The developed bio-lubricant exhibits excellent physicochemical properties also. These results show the potential of developed bio-lubricant as a substitute for the mineral oil.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Piston/Bore Tribology: The Role of Surface Specifications, Ring Pack, and Lubricant

2020-09-15
2020-01-2167
The continuing pursuit for better fuel efficiency stands behind many recent advancements in engine technology. "Downsize and charge" has become the major development paradigm alongside broad acceptance of fuel stratified injection, variable valvetrain, cylinder deactivation, 48V electric auxiliaries, powertrain hybridization, use of low-friction coatings and advanced surface finishing methods in component manufacture, etc. The introduction of higher power densities (in excess of 100 kW/L and 200 Nm/L in modern engines) raises performance requirements for engine oil. At the same time, the introduction of high-speed diesel engines justifies the move towards lower oil viscosities in order to reduce on-road greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Lubricant Additives to Ash Generation on a Close-Coupled GPF

2020-09-15
2020-01-2162
In order to meet the particulate emission targets (6 x 1011 #/km), some gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines might require the use of particulate filters (GPF). The lifetime of wall-flow filters is influenced by the composition of the engine lubricant due to its potential to contribute to the ash accumulation in the GPF. Due to space constraints and to facilitate trapping and soot regeneration, a large number of GPFs will be in closed-coupled configuration. A study was carried out on an endurance test with a radio labelling method and conventional mass gain measurement to evaluate this GPF configuration, and verify the impact of metallic additives contained in the lubricant such as magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) based detergent, a zinc (Zn) based anti-wear, and a molybdenum (Mo) based friction modifier. Two oils were evaluated, with two levels (0.85%-1.1%) of SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur).
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel Efficiency and Durability Aspect of a Low Viscosity Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil

2020-09-15
2020-01-2164
Due to CAFÉ regulations and advanced emission regulations for Indian auto industry, fuel efficiency gain via lower viscosity lubricants is a trend in auto industry. Achieving fuel economy by reducing oil viscosity is already established for passenger car motor oils (PCMOs) but is in its initial phase for heavy-duty diesel engine oils (HDDEOs). Now SAE 15W-40 is the most widely used viscosity grade by volume for HDDEO. Again the emission norms and CAFÉ regulations are applicable for new engines whereas a large population of vehicles in India is old vehicles meeting BS II, BS III and BS IV norms. It is also important to reduce fuel consumption in those vehicles to help in the reduction of GHG emissions. In this paper, the authors discuss the development of a low viscosity heavy duty diesel engine oil in 10W30 viscometrics meeting API CH4 specification.
Technical Paper

Advanced Intra-cycle Detection of Pre-Ignition Events Through Phase-Space Transforms of Cylinder Pressure Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2046
The widespread adoption of boosted downsized SI engines has brought preignition phenomena into greater focus, as the knock events resulting from preignitions can cause significant hardware damage. Much attention has been given to understanding the causes of preignition and identify lubricant or fuel properties and engine design and calibration considerations that impact its frequency. This helps to shift the preignition limit to higher specific loads and allow further downsizing but does not fundamentally eliminate the problem. Real-time detection and mitigation of preignition would thus be desirable to allow safe engine operation in preignition-prone conditions. This study focuses on earlier detection of preignition in an engine cycle where it occurs.
Technical Paper

New Methodology for Real-time and Quantitative Measurement of Engine Oil Emissions on I.C. Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2193
New environmental regulations and stringent emissions standards have lowered the limits for Particulate Matter (PM) mass and Particle Number (PN) emissions requiring further optimization of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Partially burned and unburned lubricating oil contributes significantly to black carbon and soot particle emissions which are not neglectable compared to fuel generated particles. Oil emissions are influenced by engine speed and load conditions but also by engine oil properties and formulation. Minimizing oil consumption has become a fundamental concern and there is a real need for better understanding associated sources and mechanisms. Therefore, researchers and engineers need appropriate tools and methodologies to solve these new problems. A reliable oil consumption measurement methodology able to quantify oil emissions (all oil emissions forms) and only oil emissions is a prerequisite.
Technical Paper

Beyond Noack Volatility: New Perspective for Engine Lubricant Oil and Particle Emissions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2161
Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are key factors in the current development of powertrains. Engine oil has proven to be an efficient lever for improving fuel economy. The full potential of a low viscosity lubricant could be achieved by a shift towards formulation with low viscosity, high volatility base oils. However, there is a concern that this might increase oil consumption and limit long oil drain intervals. This article deals with the engine lubricant contribution to oil and particle emissions. A series of 0W-12 oil prototypes have been evaluated both within laboratory measurements and on a modern turbocharged direct injecti gasoline engine. Correlation between oil emission and engine oil properties will be presented. The impact of engine oil on particle emissions has also been investigated under different engine operating conditions.
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