Among known electrochemical batteries, Lithium-ion batteries are best suited for portable electronics and electric vehicles because of their highest gravimetric and volumetric energy density. The anode materials used so far in commercial lithium-ion batteries are still graphite, but its specific capacity has been unable to meet the market demand. SnO2 is a promising alternative due to its high specific capacity with 782 mAh/g, but there are many bottlenecks when it is used as anode material solely, such as poor electrical conductivity, high volume change rate. In order to suppress these deficiencies, porous nano-sized SnO2/graphene/activated carbon (CAC/GN/SnO2) composites with high electrochemical performance are prepared via hydrothermal method followed by a facile calcination.
In recent years, the supercharged spark ignition engine (SI engine) is spread out in the field of passenger vehicle. However, it has a problem of abnormal combustion which is called Low Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI). It is cleared gradually that the character of lubricating oil effects on LSPI behavior. The lubricating oil which has a tolerance for LSPI has been introduced already in the market nowadays. However, cause and mechanism of LSPI occurrence does not clear sufficiently. In previous conference SETC 2018, it was reported that the peculiar behavior of LSPI corresponded with behavior of lubricating oil from piston crown. This paper focuses on frequency of lubricating oil scattering from piston crown.
Two-stroke (2S) engines still play a key role in the global internal combustion engine (ICE) market when high power density, low production costs, and limited size and weight are required. However, they suffer from low efficiency and high levels of pollutant emissions, both linked to the short circuit of fuel and lubricating oil. Low- and high-pressure direct injection systems have proved to be effective in the reduction of fuel short circuiting, thus decreasing unburnt hydrocarbons and improving engine efficiency. However, the narrow time window available for fuel to be injected and homogenized with air, limited to few crank-angles, leads to insufficiently homogenized fuel-air mixtures and, as a consequence, to incomplete combustions. The use of prechambers can be a well-suited solution to avoid these issues.
Baja SAE is an intercollegiate competition where teams design and build a single-seat off-road vehicle that is powered by a small 10 HP Briggs & Stratton engine. Due to this power constraint, it is crucial to optimize the vehicle's weight and performance. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the process of simulating, designing, manufacturing, and testing the gearbox of the vehicle. The design process began by creating a vehicle dynamics simulation, which included engine performance, CVT Shifting, tire slipping, vehicle mass, rotational inertia, air drag, rolling resistance, weight shift, and drivetrain efficiency. These calculations predicted acceleration times, top speed, and optimal gear ratio. An often-neglected parameter that was analyzed was the rotational inertia in the drivetrain system. The results showed the effective mass of the vehicle increased 12% above the weight of the vehicle, primarily due to the weight and size of the CVT primary pulley.
The supercharged spark ignition engine (SI engine) has a problem of abnormal combustion. It is called Low Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI). The lubricating oil which has a tolerance for LSPI has been introduced already in automobile market nowadays. However, cause and mechanism of LSPI does not clear sufficiently. It has been reported that the peculiar behavior of LSPI corresponded with behavior of lubricating oil from piston crown. This paper focuses on effect of fuel ingredients on autoignition of a lubricating oil droplet about LSPI. On the ignition source point of view, it is important to clear the mechanism of a lubricating oil droplet autoignition in cylinder. This paper will be tried to clear its mechanism fundamentally by using of electric furnace which is heated an oil droplet. As a result, the activation energy E is found for quantitative evaluation of LSPI.