Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD.
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset.
In lieu of the increase in the population of automobiles, there is heavy use of fossil fuels and mineral oils. This leads to depletion in fossil fuel and mineral oil which is a by-product of petroleum. We cannot depend on this for a long period of time and which is toxic to the environment. In order to reduce the usage of existing mineral oil for lubrication, a source of non-edible oil from Jatropha Curcus which is available in an abundant and renewable source of alternative lubricant is processed as jatropha methyl ester because of high viscosity and density and blended with base oil which reduces the pollution. To increase the antiwear properties of the lubricating oil nano copper oxide particle additive are blend with the base oil which is tested in a two-stroke engine. Emission and tribological effects have been tested. There are chances of them being depleted in a short span of years.
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon.
This work explores the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based statistically significant measurements of cylinder pressure to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical-chemistry effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement or fuel chemistry, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads.
Morphology of soot nanoparticles is characteristically complex and 3-dimensional, and plays a defining role in soot-related phenomena. Morphological characterisation of soot is essential to understand the extent of such effects, including harm to human health, and develop strategies to mitigate them. Use of 2D-TEM for characterisation is associated with numerous and significant sources of error and uncertainty related to a 2D-3D information gap. Volume reconstruction by 3D-TEM avoids many of these sources of error, and has been shown in simulation studies to be highly accurate. However, the technique has traditionally been too slow to permit study of enough individual structures to satisfactorily characterise a bulk soot-sample. Similarly, the prevalence of manual image processing in 2D-TEM studies of soot can limit characterisations to as few as 50 individual particles per sample.
THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEPOSITION TEST (HTDT) METHOD IS DESIGNED TO EVALUATE THE DEPOSITION AND DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBINE LUBRICANTS WHEN STRESSED UNDER MIXED-PHASE FLOW CONDITIONS FOUND IN CERTAIN PARTS OF AVIATION GAS TURBINE ENGINES. THIS METHOD IS APPLICABLE TO LUBRICANTS THAT FORM DEPOSITS IN THE RANGE OF 0.1 TO 100 MG DURING THE COURSE OF A TEST.
This document establishes the requirements for a dry film lubricant AS6449 lubricant for use on breathing oxygen system and potable water system components, for a temperature range of -90 to +300 °F. This document also establishes the Non-Destructive Test (NDT) procedures and criteria for coated production parts. This document requires qualified products and product applicators.
This SAE Standard outlines the engine oil performance categories and classifications developed through the efforts of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance), American Petroleum Institute (API), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), International Lubricant Specification Advisory Committee (ILSAC), and SAE. The verbal descriptions by API and ASTM, along with prescribed test methods and limits are shown for active categories in Table 1 and obsolete categories in Table A1. Appendix A is a historical documentation of the obsolete categories. For purposes of this document, active categories are defined as those (a) for which the required test equipment and test support materials, including reference engine oils and reference fuels, are readily available, (b) for which ASTM or the test developer monitors precision for all tests, and (c) which are currently available for licensing by API EOLCS.
This method is used for determining the compatibility of a candidate lubricant with specific reference lubricants. The reference lubricants will typically be mandated by the product specification against which the candidate lubricant is being compared. This method is based on Federal Standard 791 method 3403 and Defence Standard 05-50 (Part 61) method 24, incorporating the modifications called for in SAE AS5780.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides technical information to assist the development of specific cleaning methods for filter elements. Consideration is limited to filter elements which are designated as "cleanable" (not "disposable"), but which cannot be cleaned by simple and obvious procedures. Cleaning methods developed according to this report should be evaluated by the methods of ARP725. Satisfactory cleaning methods can be developed for most "cleanable" filter elements. Technical or economic feasibility of the cleaning method may be limited, however, by incompatibility of filter-element construction materials, by mechanical weakness or lack of corrosion resistance to withstand repeated or continued cleaning, or by the presence of unusually tenacious contamination. These factors must be considered when selecting approaches to the development of specific methods.