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Training / Education

Big Data Analytics for Connected, Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Cities

2022-05-17
There is growing interest in the concept of a smart city and how these advanced technologies will improve the quality of living and make a city more attractive to visitors, commerce and industry. This course fills an unmet need for defining and explaining the relationship between connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and smart city transportation. It is apparent that CAVs will achieve the best results when integrated with current and emerging urban infrastructure for transportation. This course addresses such integration from technology, organizational, policy and business model perspectives.
Training / Education

Infrared Camera for ADAS and Autonomous Sensing

2022-04-06
Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) and autonomous vehicle technologies have disrupted the traditional automotive industry with potential to increase safety and optimize the cost of car ownership. Among the challenges are those of sensing the environment in and around the vehicle. Infrared camera sensing is seeing a rapid growth and adoption in the industry. The applications and illumination architecture options continue to evolve. This course will provide the foundation on which to build near infrared camera technologies for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Advanced Tire to Vehicle Connectivity for Safety and Fuel Economy of Linehaul Automated Trucks

2022-03-29
2022-01-0881
Safety, fuel economy and uptime are key requirements for the operation of heavy-duty line-haul trucks within a fleet. With the penetration of connectivity and automation technologies, energy optimal and safe operation of the trucks are further improved through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) features and automated technologies as in truck platooning. Understanding the braking capability of the vehicle is important for optimal ADAS and platooning control system design and integration. In this paper, the importance of tire connectivity is demonstrated through multiple tire and vehicle tests under different tire and road surface conditions. The test data is further utilized to develop tire models for integration in an optimal vehicle automation for platooning. The simulation results of a truck in platooning indicate that both safety and fuel economy are improved by more accurate estimation of safe minimum distance of the truck to the front vehicle through tire connectivity.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Impact of Electric Vehicles on Power Losses and Voltage Profile in Power Distribution Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0748
As the number of electric vehicles (EVs) within society rapidly increase, the concept of maximizing its efficiency within the electric smart grid becomes crucial. This research presents the impacts of integrating EVs within a smart grid through a vehicle to grid (V2G) program. It also observes the circulation of electric charge within the system on a time schedule so that the electric grid does not become exhausted during peak hours. This paper will cover several different case studies and will analyze the best and worst scenarios for the power losses and voltage profiles in the power distribution system. Specifically, we seek to find the optimal location as well as the ideal number of EVs in the distribution system while minimizing its power losses and optimizing its voltage profile. Verification of the results will be primarily conducted using GUIs created on MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of electric and combustion vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0749
Over the last decades, electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as an alternative to combustion engine vehicles. EVs have different propulsion and fuel intake system when compared to combustion engine vehicles. Therefore, cradle-to-gate (CTG) and well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) would be different. In this study, life cycle GHG emissions of vehicle cycle and fuel cycle are compared between EV and internal combustion engine (ICEV) powered by petrol and diesel as fuel. This study used the average curb weight of all three types of vehicles based on the availability and popularity in the Indian market (as a case study) for life cycle assessment. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transport (GREET) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory was adopted to conduct the life cycle assessment. The mileage of 150,000 km over the whole life period was assumed for all types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

High-Fidelity Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modeling Using Sparse Telematics Data

2022-03-29
2022-01-0527
Heavy-duty commercial vehicles tend to have poor energy efficiency due to relatively high mass, poor aerodynamic characteristics, and high auxiliary power loads. These factors lead directly to high fuel cost per mile, perpetuate domestic dependence on imported oil, and contribute to climate change and environmental damage in the form of air pollution. The optimization of energy efficiency in these vehicles presents a way to reduce industry expenses while also taking action on the growing issue of climate change. Vehicle modeling provides a path for energy efficiency improvement by allowing rapid experimentation of different vehicle characteristics on fuel consumption. This research focused on creating higher fidelity models using real-world, sparsely collected telematics data from a large fleet of heavy-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in V2X Communications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0120
Over the years there has been an enormous interest in V2X communications that enable an array of benefits such as road safety, traffic efficiency and to pave the way for fully automated driving through its non-line of sight sensing. Hence, there is a need for these V2X communications to be secured and reliable by ensuring that the cybersecurity properties like Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) are not compromised. This paper evaluates the potential cybersecurity use-cases developed, focusing on vulnerabilities like black hole attack, sybil attack and timing attack in V2X communications. The proposed cybersecurity vulnerabilities were tested and evaluated on FEV’s Smart Vehicle Demonstrator. Furthermore, the best practice countermeasure methods to avoid and overcome the risks identified based on the results were also discussed.
Technical Paper

Functional verification and validation of secure controller area network (CAN) communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause. Test environment setup with secured hardware and simulated models, test scenarios and test data created to achieve our objective.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of energy consumption reduction in class 8 trucks using eco-driving algorithm based on on-road testing

2022-03-29
2022-01-0139
Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication has enabled on-board access to the information from other vehicles and infrastructure. This information, traditionally used for safety applications, is increasingly being used for improving fuel economy of the vehicles [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This work aims at demonstrating energy consumption reduction in heavy/medium duty vehicles using the eco-driving algorithm. The algorithm is enabled by V2X communication and uses data contained in basic safety messages (BSMs) and signal phase and timing (SPaT) to generate an energy-efficient velocity trajectory for the vehicle to follow. A ~25.7 km (16-mi) urban corridor in Bexar County, Texas, was modeled in a microscopic traffic simulation package and calibrated to match real-world conditions. For the trucks using this algorithm, a nominal reduction of 7% in energy consumption and 6% in trip time was observed in simulation. This was validated by on-track testing of a pair of velocity profiles.
Technical Paper

5G Network Connectivity Automated Test and Verification for Autonomous Vehicles Using UAVs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0145
The significance and the number of vehicle safety features enabled via connectivity continue to increase. OnStar, with its automatic airbag notification, was one of the first vehicle safety features that demonstrate the enhanced safety benefits of connectivity. Vehicle connectivity benefits have grown to include remote software updates, data analytics to aid with preventative maintenance and even to theft prevention and recovery. All of these services require available and reliable connectivity. However, except for the airbag notification, none have strict latency requirements. For example, software updates can generally be postponed till reliable connectivity is available. Data required for prognostics use cases can be stored and transmitted at a later time. A new set of use cases are emerging that do demand continuous, reliable and low latency connectivity. For example, remote control of autonomous vehicles may be required in unique situations.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vehicle-to-Vehicle Fast Charging Control System Utilizing Motor and Inverter in EV

2022-03-29
2022-01-0170
As electric vehicles become more widespread, such vehicles may be subject to “range anxiety” due to the risk of discharging during driving or the discharging when left unused for a long period. Accordingly, a vehicle equipped with a mobile charger that can provide a charge in an emergency. The vehicle with the mobile charger is usually composed of a large capacity battery, a power converter in a small truck. However, the large capacity battery and the power converter are disadvantageous in that they are large in size and expensive and should be produced as a special vehicle. In this paper, we propose a method to solve the problem using an internal EV system without requiring an additional power generation, battery and a charging-and-discharging device. The method is a novel Vehicle-to-Vehicle fast charging control system utilizing motor and inverter in EV.
Technical Paper

EV Battery Power Management for Supplying Smart Loads in Power Distribution Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0171
Uninterrupted and economic power is very important for a smart power distribution system's operation. A strong transmission and distribution system is needed to supply uninterrupted power, which is challenging and costly for power system operators in the perspective of ever-increasing energy demand. While the number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing in the society, by appropriate power management of their batteries, they have the potential to support the uninterruptable power goal. This research analyses different penetration level of electric vehicles in power distribution systems to provide stable energy for the smart devices and observes its impacts on operational costs and environmental emissions. The supply of EV power is determined based on smart device consumption by optimal energy management of EV batteries in such a way that both the utilities and the car owner get benefits.
Technical Paper

Computer Vision-Based V2X Collaborative Perception

2022-03-29
2022-01-0073
In this paper, we present the computer vision-based V2X collaborative perception. Our system uses a forward-looking camera in the Host Vehicle. The camera detects road users such as pedestrians, vehicles, and motorcycles. Such information includes object type, relative location, direction, and speed. This information is used to compose proxy Basic Safety Messages on behalf of the detected objects. Early adopters of the V2X technology can experience the benefits of enhanced V2X market penetration. The outcome of adopting our concept will result in an inflated V2X market penetration rate leading to earlier safety, mobility, and situational awareness improvements. The ultimate goal is for all road participants to be fully aware of each other. The novelty of our work is the integration of computer vision-based detection and LTE-V V2X communications, in addition to implementing the concept for pedestrians and bicyclists.
Technical Paper

Mobile Safety Application for Pedestrians Utilizing P2V Communication Over Bluetooth

2022-03-29
2022-01-0155
Vulnerable Road User (VRU) safety has been an important issue throughout the years as corresponding fatality numbers in traffic have been increasing each year. With the developments in connected vehicle technology, there are new and easier ways of implementing Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication which can be utilized to provide safety and early warning benefits for VRUs. Mobile phones are one important point of interest with their sensors being increased in quantity and quality and improved in terms of accuracy. Bluetooth and extended Bluetooth technology in mobile phones has enhanced support to carry larger chunks of information to longer distances. The work we discuss in this paper is related to a mobile application that utilizes the mobile phone sensors and Bluetooth communication to implement Personal Safety Message (PSM) broadcast using the SAE J2735 standard to create a Pedestrian to Vehicle (P2V) based safety warning structure.
Technical Paper

Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory with Traffic Preview

2022-03-29
2022-01-0152
By utilizing the vehicle to infrastructure communication, the conventional Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) applications give speed advisory range for drivers to travel to pass at the green light. However, these systems do not consider the traffic between the ego vehicle and the traffic light location, resulting in inaccurate speed advisories. Therefore, the driver needs to intuitively adjust the vehicle's speed to pass at the green light and avoid traffic in these scenarios. Furthermore, inaccurate speed advisories may result in unnecessary acceleration and deceleration, resulting in poor fuel efficiency and comfort. To address these shortcomings of conventional GLOSA, in this study, we proposed the utilization of collaborative perception messages shared by smart infrastructures to create an enhanced speed advisory for the connected vehicle drivers and automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Cryptographic verification method for an emergency vehicle to non-emergency vehicle communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0118
An emergency vehicle is one of the critical vehicles designed by the OEMs to support the emergency assistance and maintenance for different emergency situations such as fire, health, etc. These vehicles are provided a special provision by the legal authorities to bypass the road traffic scenarios and guidelines. The special provisions mainly include a co-operation of the non-emergency vehicles on the road for providing a smooth provision for the emergency vehicles to move, bypassing of traffic signals, etc. Sometimes, the intruders utilize these provisions to hide their original identities by utilizing the emergency vehicles for their transportation. The vehicles utilized by intruders for this purpose are the illegitimate ones, which are carried by attackers for illegal purposes, but they possess the same external appearances and special alerting system as the legitimate emergency vehicles.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Bayesian Optimization of Lithium-ion Battery Cells

2022-03-29
2022-01-0703
In the last years, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become the most important energy storage system for consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grids. A LIB is composed of several unit cells. Therefore, one of the most important factors that determine the performance of a LIB is the design of the unit cell. The design of LIB cells is a challenging problem since it involves the evaluation of expensive black-box functions. These functions lack a closed-form expression, and therefore, they require long-running time simulations or physical experiments for their evaluation. Recently, Bayesian optimization has emerged as a powerful gradient-free optimization methodology to solve black-box function optimization problems. Bayesian optimization has two main components: a probabilistic surrogate model of the black-box function and an acquisition function that guides the optimization. This study employs Bayesian optimization in the design of cylindrical cells type 18650.
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