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Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Optimization Using TMR Analysis for CI Engine Fueled by Blends of Simarouba Methyl Ester

2019-09-16
2019-01-1894
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Generally, vehicle extensively tested to withstand against mechanical shocks, noise, vibration etc. While, accordingly make the provision such as suspension, dampers, air bags etc. still the problem of noise/vibration day-by-day incrementally arise and become severe with the age of vehicles. Noise/vibration is a controllable pollutant that deserves the attention were all the scientific community work hard for controlling their harmful effects. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to reduce Noise/vibration on predominantly basis while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines.
Technical Paper

Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

2019-09-16
2019-01-1893
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc..
Technical Paper

Waste Plastic oil used as an Alternative fuel for Aero Diesel Engines: an Analysis

2019-09-16
2019-01-1896
The use of plastics and its production has seen a significant increase in recent years and accordingly the amount of plastic waste that gets accumulated in the environment has increased to an alarming level. Since plastics are primarily a petroleum based product, this increase in demand for plastics has to certain extent reduced the availability of petroleum as a non-renewable fossil fuel. One of the options to reduce the pollution due to waste plastic and create an alternate source of energy is to recycle the plastic waste by converting them into valuable energy resource. In this regard, oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics becomes a promising one to be used as a resource of aviation fuel. The current study analyses the oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics to be used in aero diesel engines. The study focusses on the use of waste plastic oil with diesel blend and compared its performance with diesel.
Technical Paper

Laser surface treatment machine for Ariane 6 Cryogenic Tanks

2019-09-16
2019-01-1897
Surface treatment of cryogenic tanks (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) for the Ariane 6 Space Launcher is a critical step for the adhesion of insulation materials. This operation is currently performed by the help of chemical products which are for some of them carcinogenic, mutagenic and repro-toxic. The large tank dimensions require using an important quantity of those products which generate massive recurring costs and health and environment problems. ArianeGroup has previously qualified and patented the Laser Surface Treatment as a replacement solution to chemical process. The aim is to use energy provided by infrared laser beam to modify the top layer of the tank surface. The chosen technology is Nd-YAG pulsed laser. Electroimpact has been chosen to carry out the industrial application.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

2019-09-16
2019-01-1912
Aircraft service has been increasing today and it also results in the increase of the greenhouse gas emission. To solve this problem, the electric aircraft propulsion system is the key solutions to realize the clean and high efficiency aircraft, while demanding higher output density motors. So far, though 5 kW/kg is realized with permanent magnet type synchronous motors, the electric aircraft for over 100 passengers demands motors with 16 -20 kW/kg. Superconducting (S.C.) technology is one of the effective candidates for higher output density motors. In comparison with copper wires, the S.C. wires have higher current density at less than –200 ℃. And we can make a lighter weight coil with the S.C. wires. So far, many groups have been studying the S.C. motors over 16 kW/kg. Generally, there are two kinds of S.C motors. One is the S.C. motors made of the S.C. field coils and copper armature windings. The other is the fully S.C. motors using S.C. field and armature windings.
Training / Education

Fuel Systems Material Selection and Compatibility with Alternative Fuels

2019-08-27
This course will introduce the participants to the factors governing fuel-material compatibility and methods to predict and empirically determine compatibility for new alternative fuel chemistries.  By understanding the mechanisms and factors associated with chemically-induced degradation, participants will be able to assess the impact of fuel chemistry to infrastructure components, including those associated with vehicle fuel systems.  This course is unique in that it looks at compatibility from a fuel chemistry perspective, especially new fuel types such as alcohols and other biofuels. 
Technical Paper

Testing of Elastomer Icephobic Coatings in the AIWT: Lessons Learned

2019-06-10
2019-01-1994
A study has been conducted into icephobic properties of some highly durable “off-the-shelf” elastomer materials using a rotating ice adhesion test rig installed in the NRC’s Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel. This enabled the formation of ice at environmental conditions similar to those experienced during in-flight icing encounters. Initially, the tests indicated some very positive results with ice adhesion shear stress as low as 8KPa. On further examination, however, it became apparent that the test preparation process, in which the samples were cleaned with an ethanol alcohol solution, influenced the results due to absorption and prolonged retention of the cleaning fluid. The uptake of the ethanol alcohol solution by the elastomer was found to be a function of the surface temperature and remained absorbed into the coating during the ice accretion process changing the characteristics of the coating in such a way that led to a reduction in the ice/surface bond strength.
Standard

Standard for Fuel Systems in Fuel Cell and Other Hydrogen Vehicles

2019-06-06
WIP
J2579

The purpose of this document is to define design, construction, operational, and maintenance requirements for hydrogen fuel storage and handling systems in on-road vehicles.

Performance-based requirements for verification of design prototype and production hydrogen storage and handling systems are also defined in this document. Complementary test protocols (for use in type approval or self-certification) to qualify designs (and/or production) as meeting the specified performance requirements are described.

Crashworthiness of hydrogen storage and handling systems is beyond the scope of this document. SAE J2578 includes requirements relating to crashworthiness and vehicle integration for fuel cell vehicles. It defines recommended practices related to the integration of hydrogen storage and handling systems, fuel cell system, and electrical systems into the overall Fuel Cell Vehicle.

Article

Boeing reports on its environmental efforts

2019-06-05
The strategy identifies 2025 as a target year to collaborate with communities around the globe and create products focused on environmental performance, emissions and waste reduction, and lower levels of water and energy consumption at work sites.
Standard

Flux, Aluminum Welding

2019-06-03
WIP
AMS3414F
This specification covers an aluminum welding flux in the form of powder.
Article

United ups commitment to sustainable aviation biofuel, extends contract with World Energy

2019-05-23
United Airlines officials in Chicago have strengthened their commitment to ensuring United is an environmentally conscious carrier by expanding its contract with Boston-based World Energy and agreeing to purchase up to 10 million gallons of commercial-scale, sustainable aviation biofuel over the next two years. United currently uses the biofuel to help sustainably power every flight departing out of its Los Angeles Airport (LAX) hub and achieve more than a 60 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on a lifecycle basis, officials say.
Standard

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

2019-04-11
CURRENT
AIR1168/1A
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
Technical Paper

Scavenged Pre-Chamber Volume Effect on Gas Engine Performance and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0258
This work presents development and results of experimental and numerical investigations of an advanced ignition system with a scavenged pre-chamber for a natural gas fueled engine with a bore of 102 mm and stroke of 120 mm. Two combustion concepts are taken into account. The lean burn concept is used to minimize engine out emissions of nitric oxides (NOx) and to achieve high thermal efficiency at low load. The in-house designed scavenged pre-chamber enables the engine to be operated up to the air-excess ratio (lambda) of 2. A stoichiometric (lambda=1) operation is also possible. It is compatible with a three-way catalyst concept, at high load and potentially transient modes and can provide as high as possible engine power density. The influence of the scavenged pre-chamber volume on the combustion and performance within the range of the operational points of the naturally aspirated engine is presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Fluids on Injection Strategies to Suppress Pre-Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0257
Pre-ignition is an abnormal engine combustion phenomenon where the inducted fuel-air charge ignites before the spark ignition. This premature combustion phenomenon often leads to heavy knocking events. The mixture preparation plays a critical role in pre-ignition tendency for a given load. Literature shows efforts made towards improving pre-ignition-limited-IMEP by splitting the injection pulse into multiple pulses. In this study, two direct injectors are used in a single cylinder research engine. A centrally mounted direct injector was used to inject Coryton Gasoline (RON 95) fuel early in the intake stroke. A second fluid was injected late in the compression stroke to suppress pre-ignition. The fluids used in the second direct injector was varied to see the effects of the molecule and its physical and chemical property on pre-ignition suppression tendency. Methanol, ethanol, water, and gasoline were tested as second fluid.
Technical Paper

An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0294
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment. This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
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