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Technical Paper

The Study and Deep Insights of Port Injection Turbocharged CNG Engine Development for Trucks and Buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0214
The intensifying demand of cleaner fuelled vehicles considering current norms of BSIV and upcoming stringent norms of BSVI with low cost solutions has promoted the development of CNG and dual fuel vehicles. CNG vehicle is anticipated to discover its extensive use for environment fortification and effective deployment of energy capitals. Thus, CNG vehicles can be pretty effective in averting environment deterioration. CNG has low carbon to hydrogen ratio, this leads to very low CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel vehicles. CNG engines have the potential of low NOx and particulate emissions. Natural gas vehicle development has been directed on the way to current use of direct injection and port injection with S.I. engines. Generally for low cost development, all OEMs prefer optimization of existing engines. Similarly for this project, a diesel engine was converted to S.I. engine for development of low emission CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Total Life Cycle Analysis of CNG and Hydrogen Enriched CNG Powered Vehicles : A Comparative Evaluation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0105
Vehicles consume energy and release harmful emissions throughout their life period from the manufacturing stage of raw materials to the vehicle scrapyard. Current Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions with gasoline and diesel vehicles are reported to be 164 gCO2/km and 156 gCO2/km respectively. Thus, enormous researches are carried out for low-carbon alternatives replacing conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce GHG emissions. The continuous research on hydrogen as a transportation fuel has demonstrated the potential of reduced vehicular emissions compared to conventional fuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive technique used to estimate the overall environmental impact of vehicles. In this present work, a comparative LCA is conducted between Compressed Natural gas (CNG) powered vehicles and H-CNG powered vehicles. Also sustainable indicators such as Net Energy Ratio, Fossil Energy Ratio are evaluated for the test cases.
Technical Paper

Deployment of Energy saving technologies on 2 Cylinder Common Rail Diesel engine to improve the engine Mechanical efficiency moving from BSIV to BSVI

2021-09-22
2021-26-0046
Today the whole automotive world is progressively transforming towards the adoption of new alternate and innovative technologies evolving in ICE to meet the stringent emission regulations and future CO2 goals while protecting the environment; may it be a Electrification, Various degrees of hybridization, Alternate fuels, Engine downsizing, Cylinder deactivation or VVT etc. The key to achieve better FE, reduction in CO2 or emissions is realized by saving every pie of energy spent or reducing the parasitic losses and improving engine efficiencies wherever possible. In this paper, an experimental study on the deployment of various energy saving technologies are exploited on small 2 Cylinder CRDI BSVI engine for friction reduction moving forward from BSIV to BSVI phase. In first step, Piston-Ring pack is optimized for energy saving potentials by design and surface coating modification approach. Design optimizations are done in balancer shaft to improve energy losses.
Technical Paper

A Review on the Assessment of Injection Characteristics and Energy Levels for CNG and Hydrogen Gas Injectors

2021-09-22
2021-26-0223
In today's world, fuel injection technology is vital for the development of vehicles powered by gaseous fuel to achieve United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Affordable & Clean Energy and Climate Action, as energy and environment are the enablers of all other SDGs. There is a definite scope of gaseous injectors for development and testing of hydrogen engine. This paper describes the procedures to select injectors for handling hydrogen fuels in SI engines and the suitability of CNG injector for using hydrogen fuel. The selection of injectors for introducing gaseous fuel into the engine depends on the parameters such as duty cycle and pulse width of the injector. The calculation for injector pulse width and injector flow/spray for determining the engine performance also discussed. The final calculated results are validated with experimental results, as well as engine performance parameters, which are within 10 % of the calculated results.
Technical Paper

CNG vehicle abnormal noise root cause identification

2021-09-22
2021-26-0304
CNG vehicle abnormal noise root cause identification (By: Edwin Prakash, Hemendra Singh, Dhankhar Dinesh Singh, Chatterjee Joydeep) Due to global warming, stringent emissions regulations drive the automobile industry to concentrate on alternate fuel, like natural gas, Bio-fuel and Hybrid system. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Fuel play vital role in good fuel efficiency and emission control than Gasoline and diesel. At the same time to maintain CNG vehicle NVH performance to be better than gasoline mode or similar like gasoline mode is very important. This paper explains in detail about experimental measurement method and root cause identification technique for CNG vehicle abnormal noise. Cavity resonance of gas fuel line and natural frequency of CNG subsystem are mainly play role for gas fuel pressure fluctuation which results Noise and vibration problem in side vehicle cabin.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spark Plug Location on Combustion, Performance and Emission of High-Speed Digital Three Spark Ignition (DTSI) Engine Fueled with dedicated Gasoline and Hydrogen.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0227
The United Nations sustainable development goals can be met by reduced use of fossil fuels in the power & transportation sector and by protecting the environment. Various efforts to utilize alternative fuels (with low or without carbon contents) in the transportation sector are in the anvil. In this research, an experimental study is performed on a single cylinder gasoline engine of 200 cc with port fuel injection and digital three spark ignition (DTSI). The effect of spark plug location is analyzed using gasoline and hydrogen fuels separately. The combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics are analyzed at 4000 rpm, WOT (Wide Open Throttle) condition with a compression ratio of 11:1 for three different spark plug locations, i.e., at Center, Left-hand side and Right-hand side of combustion bowl. The following are the best results for a centrally located spark plug in comparison with the spark plug located at the sides.
Technical Paper

Reimagining Transportation: Bio-MobilityTM

2021-09-22
2021-26-0519
India has huge an opportunity to set an example for its commitment towards global GHG emissions reduction by 30-35% and reduction in dependency on imported fossil fuel. This can be achieved by the adoption of sustainable solutions and focus on transportation sector (air, water, and surface), which currently enables mobility across the country by using fossil fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), albeit with the high cost of GHG emissions. The need of the hour, therefore, is the utilization of indigenous alternative sources of energy & fuels that can only curtail FOREX outflow but also mitigate risk of climate change. Biofuels, as a renewable transportation fuels (gases/liquids) is the best alternate source that complements fossil fuels. Biofuels are environmental friendly; enhances rural economy, and offer energy self-reliance within existing infrastructure of ICE mobility.
Technical Paper

Effects of ethanol-blended fuel on combustion characteristics, gaseous and particulate emissions in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0356
Ethanol fuel blends with gasoline for spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages in fuel economy and reducing emissions. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of these blends on combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure profiles, gas phase emissions (e.g. unburned hydrocarbons, NOx) and particulates (e.g. particulate matter and particle number) using both measurement campaigns and digital engineering workflows. Nineteen load-speed operating points in a 1L 3-cylinder GDI SI engine were measured and modelled. The measurements for in-cylinder pressure and emissions were repeated at each operating point for three types of fuel: gasoline, E10 (10% ethanol blend) and E20 (20% ethanol blend).
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switch off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increases in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As electric cam phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of an all speed governed Diesel-CNG dual fuel engine for farm Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0101
This paper discusses the development of an all speed governed diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine for agricultural farm tractor. A 45 hp, 2.9 liters diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine with a novel closed loop secondary fuel injection system was developed. A frugal approach was followed for conversion, without any modification of the base mechanical diesel fuel injection system. The overall cost impact due to dual fuel conversion was kept minimum, while meeting performance and emissions at par with base diesel operation. Additional cost on gas injection system is redeemed by cost savings on diesel fuel. The dual fuel technology developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., substitutes on an average approximately 40% of diesel with compressed natural gas, while meeting the mandated agricultural tractor emission norms for dual fuel and meeting all application requirements. The governing performance of the tractor was found to be superior than base diesel tractor.
Technical Paper

Challenges overwhelmed to Meet BS VI Emissions with SPFI Fuel System for Heavy-Duty CNG Engine Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0102
As competent and low-pollution alternative fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) has revealed its excellence over engine performance and emissions. In recent years, CNG is considered as the diesel engine alternative fuel for heavy-duty engine applications due to its lower emissions and cost effective after-treatment systems. Due to the implementation of stricter emission norms over the years, the evolution of the fuel supply system has become more robust and electronically controlled. In the case of CNG engines, most of the engines were equipped with MPFI fuel system, for its precise fuel control abilities and controlling emission parameters. However, this MPFI system encompasses severe design changes in the intake manifold and is cost worthy to OEMs over the SPFI fuel system. MPFI system adds on the overall cost of the engine unit and its maintenance when compared to SPFI system.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Emission Reduction Potential of Diesel-Methanol Blends in a Heavy-Duty Genset Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0104
One of the most promising fuel alternatives for Diesel is Methanol, owing to easy availability of raw materials for Methanol production, its low cost and high potential to reduce emissions of smoke, CO and PM because of its high oxygen content. Methanol as a fuel blend with Diesel is non-viable as Methanol is not readily miscible with Diesel. This paper expounds the engine performance and emission evaluation of blending Methanol with Diesel by two methods that aided in overcoming phase separation. The experiments were performed in two stages. In the first stage the investigation of the phase stabilization of Methanol in Diesel with suitable additive concentration was performed. To determine the optimum additive and its concentration for a Methanol share of up to 25% in Diesel-Methanol blends for a stabilization period of 30 days.
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alterative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1-D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Effect of CCV and OCV system in Heavy Duty CNG Engine on the Particulate Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0116
Due to increasing pollution and climatic cries, newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of emission. For which many automobiles have been shifted to alternate fuels like CNG. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in emissions. Crankcase blowby gases can be an important source of particulate emission as well as other regulated and unregulated emission. They can also contribute to the loss of lubricating oil and to fouling of surface and engine components. Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) or Open Crankcase Ventilation (OCV) is capable to reduce the particulate emissions by removing the oil mist that caused mainly due to blowby in combustion chamber. This paper work is focused, to measure the effect of the CCV and OCV systems on the engine out emissions, primarily on the particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Fuel (Diesel + CNG) Engine for Off-Road Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0119
The evolution of engine technology has so far seen the most beneficial side of progress in the fields of transportation, agriculture and mobility. With the advent of innovation, there is also an impact on our environment that needs to be balanced. This is where fuels like CNG, LPG, LNG, etc. outperform the conventional fossil fuels in terms of pollution & operational cost. This paper enlightens on the use of innovative dual fuel technology where diesel & CNG fuels are used for combustion simultaneously inside the combustion chamber. Dual fuel system adaptation for farm application ensures self-reliance of the farmer where he can generate bio-CNG to use the renewable fuel for farming making him less dependent on conventional fossil fuel thus promoting a green economy. The dual fuel system is adapted on the existing in-use diesel engine with minimum modifications. This makes it feasible to retro-fit a CNG fuel system on existing diesel engine so as to operate it on dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Chemical profiling of exhaust particulate matter from Indian in-service vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0192
Particulate matter is one of the major pollutant responsible for deteriorating air quality, particularly in urban centers. Information on contributing sources with the share from different sources is a first and one of the important steps in controlling pollution. Diverse sources of particulate matter, anthropogenic as well as natural, like industries, transport, domestic burning, construction, wind-blown dust, road dust assesses the magnitude of contribution from these sources a complex issue. Receptor modeling is a scientific method which is utilized for assessment of the contribution of various sources based on chemical characteristics of particulate matter sources and ambient air particulate matter. Representative data of fractions of various chemical species in the particulate matter from the different sources i.e. source fingerprint is an essential input for the receptor modeling approach.
Technical Paper

Autoignition characterization of wet isopropanol-n-butanol-ethanol blends for ACI

2021-09-05
2021-24-0044
In this work, two blends of isopropanol, n-butanol, and ethanol (IBE) that can be produced by metabolically engineered clostridium acetobutylicum are studied experimentally in advanced compression ignition (ACI). This is done to determine whether these fuel blends have the right fuel properties to enable thermally stratified compression ignition, a stratified ACI strategy that using the cooling potential of single stage ignition fuels to control the heat release process. The first microorganism, ATCC824, produces a blend of 34.5% isopropanol, 60.1% n-butanol, and 5.4% ethanol, by mass. The second microorganism, BKM19, produces a blend of 12.3% isopropanol, 54.0% n-butanol, and 33.7% ethanol, by mass. The sensitivity of both IBE blends to intake pressure, intake temperature, and cylinder energy content (fueling rate) is characterized and compared to that of its neat constituents. Both IBE blends behaved similarly with a reactivity level between that of ethanol and n-butanol.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of the outwardly opening direct injection for internal combustion engines operating with gaseous and liquid fuels

2021-09-05
2021-24-0006
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas can be a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines. However, the injector design and its characterization, both experimental and numerical simulation is very complicated. In this work, a methane jet comes from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been simulated by one-dimensional simplified numerical model. Previous experimental investigation put in evidence three main jet regions: 1) near field region where the complex gas-dynamic structure that characterizes an under-expanded free jet; 2) transition region characterized by intense mixing; 3) far field region where the jet transitions to a fully developed subsonic turbulent jet. The aim of the work is to simulate, with a one-dimensional model, a jet of methane characterized by complex fluid-dynamic structures without invoking complex numerical models.
Technical Paper

On Turbulent Jet Ignition: a detailed numerical analysis and comparison with a standard ignition system

2021-09-05
2021-24-0033
Internal combustion engines (ICE) will most likely have a key role in the transition period toward greener propulsion systems. Therefore, increasing ICE efficiency and simultaneously reducing their emissions has become an imperative objective. Turbulent Jet Ignition appears one of the most promising technique able to achieve such a target, since it can effectively increase the potentiality of employing alternative fuels which are nonetheless hard to efficiently ignite in comparison to gasoline, such as methane In this work, an innovative analysis approach is purposed and applied to study an in-house manufactured prototype of an active pre-chamber, installed on an optically accessible engine fueled with methane. 3D CFD simulations are employed to monitor and analyses the processes evolving in the pre-chamber over a whole engine cycle, focusing the attention on the scavenging, filling and combustion phases.
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