In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
The need of Diesel as fuel has greatly pressurized the now scarcely available natural resources and is likely to become a luxury for the future generations. This paper aims at finding an alternate for diesel that can hopefully reduce the pressure on its existing demand. This paper presents a comparative study on use of different blends of Jatropha Oil (J) and Ethanol (E) as fuel in a diesel engine to observe its performance and emission characteristics. The findings are later compared with corresponding values of neat Diesel as fuel. Since Jatropha oil is more viscous and has polyunsaturated characteristics in its natural form, its ethyl ester was produced by transesterification process and later blended with Ethanol in different proportions like 90% J 10%E, 80J-20E, 70J-30E and 60J-40E.
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend.
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment. In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement of using a low viscous bio oil, RH (Rice Husk) Nano Particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel was its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (Pine oil) which doesn’t need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. To further improve its characteristics a non-metallic Nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (Hydrocarbon), Smoke, CO (Carbon monoxide). On the contrary NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values.
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. In this study, particles of synthetic graphite produced in a unique highly controlled graphitization process were selected to develop NAO- Cu-free brake-pads. The four types of pads had identical composition except variation in average particle size of the graphite (60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm). Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. Tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406) and noise studies were done on reduced scale prototype following SAE J2521 standard.
The impact of transport on global and local pollution have resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to particulate emissions at the exhaust gases in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-fuel properties, 2-engine and fuel system characteristics and 3-Exhaust after-treatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions. This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et. al, and other fuel indices, in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car.
The combustion phasing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion is incredibly sensitive to intake temperature. Controlling the intake temperature on a cycle-to-cycle basis is one-way control combustion phasing, however accomplishing this with an intake air heater/intercooler is unfeasible. One possible way to control the intake temperature is through the direct injection of fuel. The direct injection of fuel during the intake stroke cools the charge via evaporative cooling. Some heat is absorbed from the incoming air, lowering the in-cylinder temperature, while some heat is absorbed from the piston/cylinder walls if the spray reaches the walls. The amount of heat that is absorbed from the air vs. the walls depends on the injection timing during the intake. Therefore, if a high latent heat of vaporization fuel is used, the intake temperature will become very sensitive to injection timing, allowing for cycle-to-cycle control of combustion phasing.
The usage of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) was investigated on a modified diesel engine designed to work in a dual-fuel combustion mode with intake manifold alcohol injection. The maximum ratio of alcohol to diesel fuel was limited by irregular combustion phenomena like degrading combustion quality and poor process controllability at low load and knock as well as auto-ignition at high load. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle number was observed. At some testing points, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of NOx emissions; however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off. With regard to the engine efficiency aspect, the results show bidirectional behaviour: at low load points engine efficiency degrades, whereas the process becomes by up to 6 % (rel.) more effective at higher engine loads.
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range.
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.