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Technical Paper

Investigation of Mid-Frequency Interior Noise due to Tyre-Road Interaction

Over the past twenty years, the automotive sector has increasingly prioritized lightweight and eco-friendly products. Specifically, in the realm of tyres, achieving reduced weight and lower rolling resistance is crucial for improving fuel efficiency. However, these goals introduce significant challenges in managing Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), particularly regarding mid-frequency noise inside the vehicle. This study focuses on analyzing the interior noise of a passenger car within the 250 to 500 Hz frequency range. It examines how tyre tread stiffness and carcass stiffness affect this noise through structural borne noise test on a rough road drum and modal analysis, employing both experimental and computational approaches. Findings reveal that mid-frequency interior noise is significantly affected by factors such as the tension in the cap ply, the stiffness of the belt, and the damping properties of the tyre sidewall.
Technical Paper

1D and 3D coupled thermal simulation of HVAC at Defrost Mode using Dual Stream Heat Exchanger Model

In today's fast-paced lifestyle, people spend a significant amount of time for traveling which leads to a heightened demand for thermal comfort. Automotive Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems play a crucial role in providing conditioned air to ensure comfort during travel. To evaluate HVAC performance, the parameters like heat exchanger efficiency, air thermal mixing zones, and temperature distribution are essential to maintain the comfort, fuel economy & styling. However, accurately predicting cooling/heating performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations poses challenges due to the complex nature of heat exchanger modeling, which demands substantial computational resources and time. This paper presents the development of CFD modeling capabilities for predicting HVAC temperature distribution at duct outlet grills for different operating modes. Additionally, it assesses heater performance under maximum hot conditions.
Technical Paper

A methodology for temperature control during blending operation in an automobile HVAC system without using heater

The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system maintains thermal comfort inside car cabin. The thermal comfort to the occupant is achieved either by cooling, heating or blending the hot and cold air stream. The hot air stream is generated by blowing air over the heater mechanism (conventional coolant type or PTC heater). The design of efficient HVAC system is the fine balance between thermal comfort all along the year with varying weather conditions and at minimum power consumption. Air-conditioning system can significantly impact fuel economy of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and range in case of electric vehicle (EV). In the modern EVs electrically operated heater consumes substantial battery power which may adversely affect the vehicle mileage.
Technical Paper

Active management of energy source in a fuel cell electric vehicle considering air pollutants

One of the major goals of the automotive industry is to improve vehicular fuel efficiency and performance with much lesser percentages of harmful tailpipe emissions. One of the major technologies includes fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Fuel cell electric vehicle can positively affect the transportation industry with regards to increase in the greenhouse gas emission, air pollution. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that is widely used in commercial vehicles takes hydrogen and oxygen to generate the electricity. Hydrogen stored either in liquid or compressed gas, is supplied from anode end and oxygen from atmosphere is supplied from cathode end. The atmospheric air, which enters fuel cell, also contains pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur oxides (SOx), carbon monoxides and dioxides (CO, CO2), methane, ammonia etc.
Technical Paper

A Study on Cabin Heat Load Reduction using Solar Reflective Glasses in Automotive Application

Over the past few decades, there has been a notable increase in Earth's temperature due to global warming. The automotive industry, being a major contributor to this phenomenon, has been endeavoring to mitigate its impact through various measures. These efforts include reducing emissions in existing internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and promoting electric vehicles (EVs) as a feasible alternative for consumers. Despite these initiatives, there remains a persistent challenge in improving the fuel economy and driving range of vehicles. India, located along the Tropic of Cancer, experiences both tropical and subtropical climates. As a result, a substantial portion of the total heat absorbed is from solar radiation. The higher heat load necessitates extensive use of air conditioning (AC) systems, which significantly contributes to the overall power consumption of vehicles. Various measures are being implemented to mitigate this heat load and enhance the efficiency of AC operations.