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Technical Paper

ECONOMICS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT

1922-01-01
220028
The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
Technical Paper

HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION AND THE AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEER

1922-01-01
220029
Stating that the means and methods of transporting freight over the highways are governed by six factors, the author enumerates them as being the number of ton-miles of goods to be shipped, the shipping points and destinations, the kinds of highway available, the types of vehicle most suitable, the cost of operation per ton-mile and the rates that should be charged for the service. The purpose of the paper is not to answer these questions but to determine whether present practice is headed in the right direction. The conditions the highway must meet, in addition to the gross load of the vehicles, are the maximum tire load, the pressure per square inch exerted by the tire upon the pavement and the value of any impact blow upon the pavement. The impact blows of pneumatic tires are practically negligible, while solid tires build up the impact to many times the weight of the wheel load; this is proved by impact tests of tires which are described in some detail and illustrated.
Technical Paper

RECENT AIRCRAFT ENGINE DEVELOPMENTS

1922-01-01
220030
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
Technical Paper

THE TREND OF AVIATION DEVELOPMENT

1922-01-01
220031
Grouping the influences that are retarding the development of aviation into five specified divisions, the author, who took a prominent part in the development of the Liberty engine and other wartime aviation activities of the Government, discusses each one, in the order of its importance, in an effort to point out the limitations that exist as differentiated from misconceived non-existent limitations and to indicate remedial measures stimulative to a provident trend and vigorous growth of aviation. The subjects of adequate landing-fields, the real and imaginary dangers of flying, single and multi-engine airplanes, passenger comfort and commercial considerations are treated at some length, prefatory to an outline of the trend of airplane design and an enumeration of powerplant requirements.
Technical Paper

A SERVICE-MAN'S ESTIMATE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

1922-01-01
220024
After generalizing on the need for greater consideration in automobile design for service and maintenance requirements, the author discusses the accessibility of car parts at some length with the idea of pointing out difficulties encountered by service-station mechanics when parts are inaccessible, this having a bearing also on the length of time required for repair work and the consequent increased cost to the car owner. Specific instances are given and illustrated in which improvements in design could be made to obviate trouble. These are inclusive of cylinders, cylinder blocks, pistons, bolts, cap-screws, nuts, valves, dashboard instruments and general take-up adjustment. Special emphasis is placed upon certain inaccessible parts that necessitate excessive dismantling.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS MADE IN GARAGE EQUIPMENT

1922-01-01
220025
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
Technical Paper

COMMERCIAL-BODY SUPPLY AND SERVICE

1922-01-01
220026
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
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