The automobile of to-day has been developed mechanically to such a high point that the art of building them, according to the author, is gradually becoming a studio task. The paper outlines the rules of appeal in body design and shows how former types of bodies have lost their appeal because they were not based on correct principles. The author gives the ways in which power, body width, mass, comfort and other car qualities can be suggested by proportions of the body or by its color. He states that the automobile of the future will take every advantage of art knowledge to build up an appeal consistent with its mechanical performance.
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
The authors point out the need for more concrete data concerning the physical properties of bronze alloys and present an extensive chart covering the results of actual tests on a large range of cast bronze alloys. The influence of the method of making the test-specimen is discussed and it is hinted that new evidence concerning the proper interpreting of the true proportional limit is available. A very extensive set of microphotographs illustrates the variety of structures existing in the ordinary and in some unusual bronze alloys.
In this paper the author gives the results of an investigation of coarse crystallization. This investigation was carried out with commercial materials such as cold-drawn wire, hot and cold-rolled sheet, strip steel, cold-drawn tube and cold-pressings. The results of other investigations are briefly outlined. Coarse crystallization, or grain-growth, it is stated, is due to the action of a limited amount of strain, exceeding the elastic limit, followed by annealing within certain temperature ranges. The experimental work which led to this conclusion is explained in detail in the paper. The effect of forging, cold-drawing, cold-rolling and cold-pressing was determined with commercial materials. Some study was made of the effect of carbon on grain-growth and of the effect of coarse crystallization on the physical properties. In the discussion of commercial materials special reference is made to those used in motor car construction.
The author starts with the development of the pneumatic tire since its invention by Dunlop in 1888, and proceeds to show why several different types of tire construction are now in use. The merits of the three types of tires, namely, the clincher, straight-side and quick detachable, are discussed as regards energy consumption, traction, total mileage, cost-per-tire-mile, cushioning effect, reliability, ease of applying and service. The conclusions brought out show principally the advantages of the straight-side tire. Statistics are offered to show the trend of the rim situation, and it is pointed out that it is just a question of time when the quick detachable clincher will cease to survive. It had a legitimate place during the development stage, but with the developed straight-side tires giving entire satisfaction, the author holds that there is no excuse for continuing the quick detachable clincher type.
Substitutes for the conventional type of differential are considered under four classifications; namely, the free-wheel type, the crank and eccentric types, the spiral gear type, and the solid axle. Examples of each of these classifications are described and the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more practical ones discussed. Considerable space is devoted to a discussion of the elimination of any form of differential whatever. Although such construction has advantages of eliminating the spinning of the wheels and assuring positive travel under all conditions, the author believes the disadvantages too great to be overcome. The paper mentions some interesting experiments conducted by street railway engineers in connection with using differentials for street cars, to eliminate the corrugation of rails and wheels, as well as to economize in power consumption.
The author describes a number of detailed developments that took place during the working out of a line of worm-driven trucks. The details of front axle and steering parts are dealt with at length, the reasons for the final constructions being clearly explained and the constructions themselves well illustrated. Details concerning difficulty with the Hotchkiss type of drive on heavy trucks, troubles with drive-shafts and lubrication of the worm wheel are all covered thoroughly; spring-shackle construction and lubrication, radiator and hood mounting come in for detailed attention and the question of governors is interestingly covered. Brief reference is made to the influence of unsprung weight, the differences between truck and pleasure car practice in this respect being pointed out.
This paper is mainly an argument in favor of the use of large, single rear wheel truck tires instead of smaller dual tires. Although the practice of using large singles is comparatively new, the author gives the results of experience and research to show the advantages of the newer method of rear tire equipment. In developing his arguments in favor of single tires, the author goes into the history of dual tire application to show why it was necessary to use two tires in the earlier days of truck operation. As the necessity for increased carrying-capacity grew, tire manufacturers found the then existing single tire equipment inadequate, and they set about to develop suitable equipment to meet the new condition, the result being dual practice. The method of attaching the earlier dual tires is shown to have been poor, resulting in circumferential creeping of the whole tire to a much greater extent as the width of the dual equipment increased.
The author outlines the constructions that have performed cially that four-cylinder engines carried under a hood are the most satisfactory. The defects revealed by war service are given in considerable detail, the author finding that all of the trucks used had developed some weak point. Radiators and springs are specified as a general source of trouble. The author outlines a number of operating troubles developed under the existing conditions of operation and gives examples of the way these have been remedied. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of operating trucks away from made roads. The methods of fitting chains to the wheels, and the use of caterpillar attachments are described. Dimensions are given for bodies and a number of suggestions made as to their proper construction.
The paper opens with a number of quotations from publications issued by the Army War College and showing the bearing of motor transport on a proper military policy for the United States. The author then describes two experimental trips recently made by motor-truck owners near New York in an effort to determine proper motor-transport operating conditions. A statistical summary is given for these two experimental trips. The Army War College has issued in compliance with instructions of the Secretary of War a “Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the United States,” supplemented by a number of pamphlets dealing with particular features of this military policy in considerable detail. In many of these supplementary pamphlets there appears a considerable amount of material bearing upon the subject of motor transport and from them the brief quotations in the following paragraphs are taken.
The results are given of laboratory investigations made of a number of different types of carbureters, showing the relation between their gasoline and air consumptions over a wide range. This relation is plotted on so-called quality diagrams, on which is indicated the range between which high power and high efficiency can be expected. A description is given of a carbureter arranged in two stages, the first being used at light load and the second coming into action when the throttle is nearly open, thereby more than doubling the carbureter capacity. Engine performance curves are presented showing the result when only one or both stages of this carbureter are used.