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Technical Paper

RECENT ADVANCES IN AVIATION

1920-01-01
200048
The author describes the Air-Service work at McCook Field, presenting and describing numerous types of airplane, airplane engine and auxiliary aviation apparatus. After reviewing the development and present status of the Air Service, he describes the airplanes developed during the war and comments briefly upon their chief characteristics, referring to the illustrations; airplane engines are treated in a similar manner. Among auxiliaries, mention is made of airplane armament, synchronizing outfits, parachutes and packs, machine-guns, bombs, cameras and photographic equipment, with comment upon their usage and characteristic features. Armored airplanes are considered specifically and the use of variable-pitch propellers exemplified. The relations of military and commercial aviation are stated and the possibilities of airplane transport and airplane hospital ambulance service are mentioned.
Technical Paper

WAR DEPARTMENT MOTOR-TRANSPORT POLICY

1920-01-01
200050
In view of the inestimable services in the development of standardized transportation rendered to the Army by the Society of Automotive Engineers, particularly during the war, the author believes it important that the Society be acquainted with the intentions and policies of the War Department regarding the engineering development of motor transportation from the viewpoint of the problems and needs of the American Army. The fundamentals of the policies on motor transportation of February, 1919, as approved by the Chief of Staff, are stated and the subsequent changes discussed in some detail. Standardization of chassis as favored by the Army receives specific and lengthy consideration and the Government standardized trucks are commented upon. The standardization of body design and parts specifications are discussed in some detail. It is the policy of the Motor Transport Corps to maintain a thoroughly adequate and efficient engineering branch, which is now operative.
Technical Paper

USE OF HEAVY FUEL IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1920-01-01
200049
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORTATION

1920-01-01
200047
The author states that production and transportation are so closely interwoven that they cannot be considered separately and that the great problem of transportation can be satisfactorily solved only by the utilization of our navigable inland waterways. He then compares the United States with European countries in regard to the problems of inland waterway transportation and reviews the history of such transportation in this country. The organization of the Mississippi Valley Waterways Association and its activities are described. The need of considering the inland waterways transportation problem as a mechanical engineering problem is emphasized. It is recommended that a standardized system for handling freight on inland rivers be adopted and an outline is given of the requirements of such a system. A statement of Government activities in connection with this problem is presented and the policy of the Government outlined.
Technical Paper

IMPACT TESTS ON TRUCKS

1920-01-01
200059
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TRACTOR DESIGN

1920-01-01
200061
The farm tractor is finding itself among the most essential of mechanical agricultural devices; the industry is young, and controlling basic factors of design are not yet completely crystallized, nor has research had its proper share in the development. Some further factors of the author's earlier article on tractor plowing speeds2 are discussed in this paper. The earlier article dealt chiefly with plowing data on the assumption that there was delivered at the drawbar of the tractor a constant horsepower. This paper starts with a normal condition of a constant engine power which is to be delivered to the crankshaft under governor control for any of the travel speeds analyzed. The tractor is considered as powered by a given brake-horsepower engine, this power being transmitted through sets of gears in which the net bearing and gear efficiency is taken to be 73 per cent.
Technical Paper

CLEVELAND SECTION PAPERS ADVANTAGES OF MAGNETO IGNITION

1920-01-01
200062
A discussion of the advantages of magneto ignition resolves itself into a comparison of magneto and battery-ignition systems, resembling early discussions of the relative merits of the direct and the alternating-current electric systems; both are in existence and fulfilling their respective parts. After stating that ignition is closely related to carburetion and generalizing on the subject of ignition, the author discusses the fundamentals of ignition systems at length, presenting numerous diagrams, and passes to somewhat detailed consideration of comparative spark values, using illustrations. Storage batteries and auxiliary devices receive due attention next and numerous characteristic curves of battery and magneto ignition are shown. Impulse couplings are advantageous in starting large truck and tractor engines, which generally use magnetos; these are described.
Technical Paper

FACTORS INVOLVED IN FUEL UTILIZATION

1920-01-01
200060
From a laboratory examination of the controlling relationships between carburetion and engine performance still in progress, the general conclusions so far reached include fuel metering characteristics, the physical structure of the charge, fuel combustion factors and details of engine design and manufacture. In every throttle-controlled engine, the variation in fuel metering for best utilization is inversely functional with the relative loading and with the compression ratio, but the nature of the fuel leaves these general relationships undisturbed. The physical structure of the charge influences largely the net engine performance and the order of variation of the best metering with change in load. Perfect homogeneity in the charge is theoretically desirable but entails losses in performance.
Technical Paper

ENGINE DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM POWER AND FUEL ECONOMY

1920-01-01
200058
Design factors are considered from the thermodynamic standpoint only, which excludes several factors affecting power and economy. The problem of air heating includes a consideration of its influence on pressure, the consequent lowering of pressure being counteracted to some extent by the resulting improvements in carburetion and distribution and by more rapid and complete combustion; the effects of delayed combustion, with a study of the thermodynamic conditions and possible improvements; and the results that are actually obtainable from lean and rich fuel mixtures. Fuel economy is difficult because its factors conflict with those of power. The benefit of the expansion of any elastic working medium to economy is emphasized. Charts from previous papers, showing the ratio of air to fuel by weight, are referred to and discussed, best economy being obtained with mixtures leaner than those giving maximum power.
Technical Paper

LARGE-SCALE POWER FARMING

1920-01-01
200057
The paper relates to some of the methods and apparatus which can be used to advantage in large-scale farming operations. The laying out of a production program, the transportation of men and supplies, special implements for raw-land preparation, tractor dynamometers, large tractors, special plowing and tilling implements, four-wheel-drive tractors and road haulage are discussed. An operation chart applying to an area of 40,000 acres is first presented and analyzed. Regarding hours of operation, the author maintains that with a suitable organization and proper selection of motive power and implements, tractors can be kept in motion 20 hr. per day and gives a time-table. Consideration is then given in some detail to the problems of electric lighting, the implements used in raw-land preparation, the power required for various operations, types of tractor construction, plowing and harrowing, harvesting, hauling and tractor-train schedules, the whole being copiously illustrated.
Technical Paper

SOME INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS

1920-01-01
200055
The author states that the problems of inland waterway transportation are more a matter of public education than anything else and that, given the waterway on which suitable boats can be navigated, the problems of the vessels themselves and their methods of propulsion are by no means difficult. Referring to the New York State Barge Canal, the thought passes to the problem of motive power for canal barges. The author believes the internal-combustion engine in some form will be found eventually to be the most desirable, although at present little thought is being given to any power other than steam; the author discusses what form of this type of engine would be most suitable. Canal-barge engine requirements are considered at some length and the necessity of positive engine reversibility is emphasized, the conditions affecting this being outlined. The amount of power necessary for a canal barge is discussed, the governing factors being outlined.
Technical Paper

COMBUSTION OF FUELS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

1920-01-01
200069
The automotive industry was considered a mechanical one until fuel difficulties caused a realization that the internal-combustion engine is only a piece of apparatus for the effective utilization of chemistry. The only great cloud on the horizon of the automotive industry today is the fuel problem, one way to dispel it being to increase the supply and the other to make the automotive device do what it has been designed to do. The author reviews the production of oil and of automotive apparatus, considers the available fuels and states the two distinct parts of the fuel problem as being first carburetion and distribution, external to the engine and one of purely physical relationship, and, second, the combustion of fuel inside the engine cylinder. The subjects of regulating combustion by additions to the fuel, the chemistry of fuels and the burning of heavy fuels are discussed at length.
Technical Paper

SAVING FUEL WITH THE CARBURETER

1920-01-01
200056
Two series of tests were made in 1918; one to determine whether the mixture giving best economy and that giving maximum power is a constant quality for all conditions of speed and power output; the other to ascertain what effect changes in the temperature of the fuel-intake system have on the quality of the mixture which gives the maximum power and that which gives best economy. The standard United States ambulance four-cylinder engine was used for these tests, its carbureter having a primary air passage, a primary fuel-jet, an auxiliary air passage with an air-valve and a secondary fuel-jet, the manifold being cast integrally with the cylinder block and a curved riser conducting the fuel mixture from the carbureter to it. The testing methods and fuel consumption measurements are described.
Technical Paper

THE DIESEL ENGINE OF THE GERMAN SUBMARINE U-117

1920-01-01
200020
Shortly after the armistice, the author witnessed the surrender of the German submarine fleet and subsequently inspected 40 of the 170 submarines first surrendered. He also inspected 185 submarines in Germany. Practically all the engines were of the Machinenfabrik Ausburg-Nürnburg four-cycle Diesel type, of 300, 550, 1200 and 1750 hp. There were but five Krupp two-cycle engines. Brief comment is made regarding the design of these engines. The author, who supervised the dismantling of the German submarine U-117 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, gives a detailed description of its engines, which were of the 1200-hp. type. This includes comments regarding materials, design details, valve mechanism, starting and reversing gear, lubrication, cooling and accuracy of workmanship. The air-compression system and some of its auxiliaries are outlined.
Technical Paper

COMMENTS UPON FUELS, LUBRICANTS, ENGINE AND PISTON PERFORMANCE

1920-01-01
200019
The comments the author makes regarding fuels, lubricants and engine and piston performance are suggested by pertinent points appearing in papers presented at the 1920 Annual Meeting of the Society. A list of these papers is given. The subjects upon which comments are made include salability of a car, engine balancing, pressure and chemical constitution of gasoline at the instant of ignition, the use of aluminum pistons, the success attending the various departures from orthodox construction, gasoline deposition in the crankcase and cleanness of design, as stated by Mr. Pomeroy; the performance of a finely atomized mixture of liquid gasoline and air and the contamination of lubricating oil by the fuel which passes the pistons, as discussed by Mr. Vincent; the dilution of lubricating oil in engine crankcases and the saving that can be effected by its prevention, as mentioned by Mr. Kramer; and tight-fitting pistons and special rings as presented by Mr. Gunn.
Technical Paper

ADAPTING TRUCK AND TRACTOR ENGINES TO MOTOR-BOAT USE

1920-01-01
200021
The automobile engine, as used in passenger cars and a large percentage of trucks, is not adapted to use in motor boats. It is not built substantially enough for this, inasmuch as the power output of the motor-boat engine, except during starting or landing, is always 100 per cent. In view of this and because tractor, truck and marine engines are of the same family, it appears that if a truck or tractor engine were made with 100 per cent continuous power output capacity it would be satisfactory for marine use. The author describes and illustrates a tractor engine modified for marine use. The lubrication system of this engine is explained. The respective merits of right and left-hand engines are discussed. It is stated in a twin-screw boat that it is unnecessary to have both engines run out-board; that both can turn in the same direction without causing material difference in results.
Technical Paper

THE HEAT-TREATING OF BRAZED FITTINGS FOR AIRCRAFT

1920-01-01
200022
A tendency exists in most shops to assume that brazed joints cannot be successfully heat-treated. As a consequence, many fittings used in aircraft work and assembled by brazing smaller parts together are finished and installed without being heat-treated after the brazing operation. This practice causes parts to be used that not only do not develop the available strength of the material, but which are in some cases, under internal stress due to the heating in the brazing operation. Recent experiments made at the Naval Aircraft Factory show that the assumption mentioned is entirely erroneous. The author considers this matter with a view to specifying the use of steels and brazing spelters which will permit the subsequent or perhaps the simultaneous heat-treatment of the parts.
Technical Paper

PREIGNITION AND SPARK-PLUGS

1920-01-01
200015
The author proposes to determine what features of spark-plug construction cause preignition and how this preignition manifests itself. To this end observed conditions on an Hispano-Suiza aviation engine following 4 hr. of an intended 6-hr. run are reported, with supplementary tests and observations. This resulted in experiments made to determine the cause of preignition, using spark-plugs constructed so that different features of their design were exaggerated. Illustrations of these plugs are shown and the results obtained from their tests are described. The different observed peculiarities are then stated, analyzed and compared with normal spark-plug performance. The experiments serve as a means of identification of special forms of preignition and as an indication of the abnormally high temperatures to which valves and combustion-chamber walls are thus subjected.
Technical Paper

NEEDS IN ENGINE DESIGN

1920-01-01
200016
The author advocates the use of the fragile aluminum crankcase as a spacer, running crankshaft bearing bolts clear through the crankcase and the cylinder base, so tieing the bearings firmly to the castiron cylinder-block and using the through-bolts also as holding-down studs for the cylinders. The results of experiments on six-cylinder engines with reference to the satisfactory utilization of engine fuel now on the market are then presented. The problem is how to carry the fuel mixture in a proper gaseous state from the carbureter into the cylinder without having the fuel deposited out meanwhile. The power developed at engine speeds of 400 to 2800 r.p.m., with and without hot air applied to the carbureter, is tabulated, the proper location of the intake manifold is discussed, and the necessary features of a satisfactory engine to utilize present-day fuel are summarized.
Technical Paper

ADAPTING ENGINES TO THE USE OF AVAILABLE FUELS

1920-01-01
200017
Some of the salient facts regarding the character of the engine fuel marketed within the past few years are shown in accompanying curves. The desirability of operating present-day experimental cars with fuel that is the equivalent of fuel that will probably be generally marketed two years hence is stated and various methods of meeting the fuel problem are then examined. A dry fuel mixture is desired to prevent spark-plug fouling, to improve engine performance in cold weather and to minimize lubricating oil contamination by fuel which passes the pistons. Various methods of obtaining a dry mixture are then discussed, leading to a detailed description of the construction and operation of a device specially designed to accomplish such a result more successfully.
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