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Technical Paper

A STUDY OF MODERN AUTOMOTIVE-VEHICLE STEERING-SYSTEMS

1923-01-01
230013
Stating that automotive literature presents surprisingly little helpful information concerning the faults of the steering-systems used on automotive vehicles and that, in spite of the fact that so many of the faults are self-evident, they frequently are overlooked in actual practice, the author includes with the presentation of his own investigations summaries of the views expressed by numerous well-qualified automotive engineers and discusses these steering-gear faults in some detail. Beginning with the subject of safety, consideration is given successively to the causes of hard steering, the angular position of knuckle-pivots, knuckle-pivot location, the foregather or toe-in of wheels, castering or trailing effect, wheel-wabble, drag-link location, irreversibility, steering-gear type comparisons, tie-rods and tie-rod arms.
Technical Paper

COOLING CAPACITY OF AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS

1923-01-01
230012
Annual Meeting Paper - The heat-dissipating properties of three types of radiator core have been investigated at the Mason Laboratory, Yale University. These include the fin-and-tube, the ribbon and the air-tube groups, so classified according to the flow of the water and the air. The ratio of the cooling surface to the volume is shown to be nearly the same in the fin-and-tube and the air-tube cores, while that of the ribbon core is somewhat greater. A formula is derived for computing the heat-transfer coefficient, which is defined as the number of heat units per hour that will pass from one square foot of surface per degree of temperature-difference between the air and the water and is the key to radiator performance, as by it almost any desired information can be obtained. When the heat-transfer coefficients have been found for a sufficiently wide range of water and air-flows the cooling capacity of a radiator can be computed for any desired condition.
Technical Paper

WINTER TESTS SHOW LOWER MILEAGE WITH HEAVY FUELS

1923-01-01
230031
Since the road-service tests of the four special fuels supplied by the Research Department, made under 1922 summer-weather conditions, gave results that were deemed inconclusive, arrangements were made for a repetition of both series of tests under the winter-weather conditions of 1923 to determine whether the relative fuel mileages for different fuels are dependent on the temperature at which car operation is conducted. The paper is a report upon the results obtained. Four fuels that bore a relation to those used in the 1922 summer tests were specified and means adopted whereby knowledge of their quality was concealed from the drivers, special emphasis being placed on crankcase-oil dilution and on the performance as reflected by the drivers' comments.
Technical Paper

ECONOMIC MOTOR-FUEL VOLATILITY1

1923-01-01
230032
The paper is a progress report supplementing a previous report made by R. E. Carlson on the same subject and covers further investigations made by the Bureau of Standards to secure data that can be used as a basis for estimating the effect of a change in the gasoline volatility on the fuel-consumption of cars now in service throughout the United States. Actual tests began in August, 1922, to determine the effect of four fuels of different characteristics on the number of car-miles obtainable per gallon of fuel, as well as on the crankcase-oil dilution. The earlier paper discussed tests run in summer time. The present paper treats those run under winter conditions. Observations also were made on an engine which was set-up and operated in the laboratory under test conditions. Descriptions are given of the fuels used, the test-cars, the apparatus, the tests and the test methods.
Technical Paper

EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON DETONATION AND ITS CONTROL

1923-01-01
230033
Since the detonation tendency of the fuel is the limiting factor in the development of power and the efficiency with which the fuel can be burned, the author considers this phase of the subject with the idea of laying down the principles on which better economy can be attained through higher compression. The subject is discussed in regard to the causes of detonation and the methods of controlling them because detonation limits the compression at which an engine can run. The phenomenon of detonation is analyzed, the author's opinion being that increasing the temperature causes an increasing frequency of radiant-energy impulses and that, finally, it reaches a point where the frequency corresponds with the critical rate of the electrons that bind the elements together; thus, it breaks them asunder and then the velocity attains the highest rate possible in a gas of that density and temperature.
Technical Paper

ONE HUNDRED TON-MILES PER GALLON1

1923-01-01
230034
The two-fold purpose of the tests described was to acquire as many data as possible regarding the peculiar requirements of motorbuses, as viewed from the standpoint of power requirements and fuel economy, and to analyze the discrepancy found so often between the performance of an engine on the test block and the fuel economy obtained from the same engine under actual service conditions. Following a general statement of conditions to be met, and an examination of the problems of the manufacturer as to why his choice of the various units and accessories is such a vital factor in fuel economy, the improvements accomplished are enumerated, together with the reasons and inclusive of the desirable and undesirable features of carbureter specification and miscellaneous factors. The test equipment and methods are specified and discussed, the results obtained when using a steam cooling-system are presented and the general results are stated and commented upon.
Technical Paper

CRANKCASE-OIL DILUTION1

1923-01-01
230035
Present-day fuels are stated to be the cause of crankcase-oil dilution, due to their high end-points, and the author presents tabular data to show how end-points have risen since 1910, together with data showing the effects of various percentages of fuel dilution with relation to the Saybolt viscosities and pour-points of high-grade oils. Three divisions are made of the dilution due to mechanical defects. Contamination, not dilution, necessitates oil drainage, and this statement is elaborated. The rise of heavier-bodied oils is decried. Six specific divisions of how to avoid crankcase-oil dilution are made and emulsification is discussed, together with demulsibility and crankcase service. Five specifications are made with regard to how to avoid oil-sludging, and carbonization is given lengthy consideration. Proper oil-specification is treated, and instructions on how to avoid oil-pumping and carbon deposit are presented in eight divisions.
Technical Paper

SPARK-ADVANCE IN INTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINES1

1923-01-01
230036
Although the proper timing of the spark is as essential as the spark itself and the electrical and mechanical devices for producing the spark have been many, little attention has been given to the study of spark-advance. An error in timing of ± 20 deg. in a low-compression engine, or of ± 15 deg. in most other engines, has been shown experimentally to cause a loss of 10 per cent from the best power and economy, provided other conditions remained the same. Hand or semi-automatic control can average hardly closer than ± 15 deg. to the correct advance because the speed and the load combinations are constantly changing on the road. Two important phases mark the spark-advance problem.
Technical Paper

AIR-COOLED AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1923-01-01
230037
The author believes that the universal power unit will be direct air-cooled, but states that the direct air-cooled engine is now in the minority because, until very recently, there has not been a sufficiently broad series of established engineering facts and development work available to form a foundation for improvement. The satisfactory air-cooling of an 8 x 10-in. cylinder has been reported, and the development in a smaller cylinder of 138 lb. per sq. in. brake mean effective pressure; also, in a three-cylinder, air-cooled, radial-engine, a brake mean effective pressure of more than 125 lb. per sq. in. was developed and the engine endured beyond the ordinary expectations for water-cooled engines.
Technical Paper

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MODERN SERVICE-SYSTEM

1923-01-01
230022
The author states that the word “service” has been and still is the most abused word in the automobile language and enumerates some of the causes of poor service. Good service is then considered as constituting a sales asset. The new attitude toward service is described and the progress of the building-up of a combined flat-rate and piece-work system is outlined. The flat-rate and the piece-work features are analyzed, inclusive of the methods applied to each and comments upon the results obtained. Records form an all-important part, and these are kept on special forms that are illustrated; the method of their utilization is given in detail. The duties of the different members of the service personnel are specified, and it is shown how the different factors are made to combine and produce service that satisfies the car-owner.
Technical Paper

THE GENERAL-PURPOSE FARM TRACTOR

1923-01-01
230023
The author (Chicago Tractor Meeting paper) divides the history of the application of mechanical power to farm work into three periods, reviews each one and comments upon the various phases of progressive development that influence the type of tractor most desirable for satisfying present needs. The requirements of farm work are outlined, and the different types of tractor built and being constructed to meet these demands are reviewed, discussion of large versus small tractors, type of drive, power needed, control, methods of operation and the factors constituting general-purpose service being included. So far as adopting the tractor for farm usage is concerned, the author believes that the present limitation of such utilization lies with the tractor industry and with tractor engineers, rather than with the farmer.
Technical Paper

MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL HIGHWAY TRANSPORT

1923-01-01
230025
The paper is a presentation of a practical solution for the coordination of military and commercial transport with rail and water transport. The necessity for combining and coordinating transportation facilities with the idea of organizing a homogeneous transportation network of waterways, railways and highways, proved to be the essence of success in military operations during the World War. The utter inadequacy of pre-war and war-time transport facilities, when organized in the separate fields of railroad, maritime shipping and port operations, and the decentralized elements of highway transport, caused the United States Army to make a comprehensive study and plan of the world's war-time transportation with particular attention to the organization of motor transport as the necessary factor in coordinating all transportation facilities. The salient features and general principles of this study and the resultant plan are stated.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR AND SEMI-TRAILER RAILROAD-TERMINAL HAULAGE

1923-01-01
230026
The author describes a system of automotive transportation for intra-city hauling and the moving of merchandise between railroad terminals that has enabled the company he represents to serve the city of St. Louis and the railroad terminals there with a high degree of efficiency through the utilization of tractor and semi-trailer units and a thorough supervision of their movements. The units are described and illustrated, and the conditions governing their usage are set forth. The salient features of the paper include discussions of the necessity for adequate terminals, off-track versus on-track railroad depots, the volume of tonnage, tractor and semi-trailer operation and methods of procedure and control, weight and protection of loads, haulage distance, economy and a specific statement of the principal advantages gained through the use of automotive equipment of the type described.
Technical Paper

ENGLISH CARTAGE-PRACTICE AND OUR TERMINAL TRUCKING 1

1923-01-01
230027
The author discusses the factors that must be considered in solving the transportation problems and then describes the operation of the English-railway cartage-system in some detail under the two main divisions of delivery and collection. An important feature of the system is that of the control afforded by locating a controller, or dispatcher, in a central office and holding him responsible for the movements of the carmen, or drivers. The details of this control are explained. The field for the motor truck in railway-terminal service is outlined and a presentation is made of the merits and demerits of unit containers, together with an illustrated description of the English “fiats,” or demountable bodies. Other subjects treated include cartage costs, tonnage hauled, unified control of cartage and expressions of opinion quoted from numerous English trade organizations.
Technical Paper

THE DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES

1923-01-01
230029
The author discusses commercial-airplane design in general terms, considering the subject under the main divisions of economy, safety, speed and comfort. Under economy, mention is made of possible reductions of first cost by designing for long life and reliability, the effect of the former on the depreciation allowance being obviously advantageous. Airplane size is debated also, the trend of progress being seemingly toward the giant airplane. Safety is stated to be dependent upon reliability, structural strength, stability, control, fire prevention and reduction of risk of injury to passengers in the event of a crash. Minimizing the results of a crash is considered suggestively. Speed is governed almost solely by the ratio of wing loading to power loading; hence, speed will always be kept as low as possible without loss of business to competing transportation enterprises. Included among desirable measures to secure comfort are adequate ventilation and the elimination of noise.
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