The author calls attention to the unreliability of the magnetic compass when used for aerial navigation and to the possible development of the gyroscopic compass for this purpose. He then explains how the drift of an airplane in flight makes it difficult to follow with accuracy a given course devoid of landmarks, unless an accurate drift indicator using the principle of the stroboscope is available. The development of such an instrument is then described, as are also means for synchronizing it with the compass. The use of the automatic synchronized instrument in flight over land is outlined, and its application to flight over water is described in considerable detail. Rules for aerial navigation over water, observation as to movement of wave crest and determination of wind velocity and direction are considered in their relation to the use of the instrument.
The author points out the necessity of obtaining dynamic or running balance of rotating parts, especially in automobile-engine construction. He discusses the manifestations of the lack of static and running balance, such as vibration and high bearing pressures. Formulas are supplied for calculating bending moments and centrifugal forces in a crankshaft that is out of balance. Methods for obtaining static balance are described and the possible conditions existing after static balance is obtained are treated, with especial reference to the existence of one or more couples. Descriptions are given of two representative machines that are used to locate couples and correct for them. The principles of operation are made clear and advantages and disadvantages of each type are brought out fully.
The author outlines methods for producing high-speed engines with high mean effective pressure and gives data resulting from several years' experimental work. He discusses the desirable stroke-bore ratios; valve area, weight, dimensions, location and timing; compression ratios; ignition requirements; and the location and means for operating camshafts and other valve-actuating mechanism. Data are given regarding the best material and dimensions for pistons and the desirable number of rings. The physical characteristics of alloy steel desirable for use in connecting-rods are mentioned. Similar data, including dimensions and factors controlling the construction of the crankshaft and its bearings are included. The relation of the inertia stresses set up by reciprocating parts to those due to the explosion and compression pressure on the piston head is indicated, and the maximum total stress deduced.
The author discusses in this paper a few of the problems involved in the design of ignition equipment. Some of these problems have been solved and some remain to be solved. The early history of the development of ignition apparatus is traced, reference being made to the vibrating coil type of ignition operated by dry cells or storage batteries, various types of magneto and dual-magneto systems, and combined generator and storage battery systems. The balance of the paper refers more particularly to batteries and ignition proper. The two types of battery ignition, open-circuit and closed-circuit, are described and the current characteristics of each are shown graphically by means of curves. Some of the problems encountered in the development of present battery systems are next considered and such topics as reduction of inertia in the contact-arm, overcoming harmonic vibration, advantages of one-piece cams and the function and design of the condenser are treated in detail.
After pointing out the existing dearth of easily workable data and formulas covering automobile suspensions, the author mentions the elements that contribute to riding comfort. He then outlines what he considers a good suspension, tabulating the spring dimensions of five hypothetical cars, typical of those on the American market. Curves of spring deflection are included in the paper. Functions of rear springs, the damping effect essential in good suspensions, “thin leaf” springs and spring lubrication are next discussed. In conclusion the author covers means of improving a car's riding qualities and cites a very interesting test for determining spring performance by means of the impressions made on a photographic plate by light from electric lamps mounted on wheels and fenders of an automobile and on the passengers.
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
This paper deals only with water-cooled engines, the cooling system being considered as made up of four main units-the water jacket, the circulating system, the radiator and the fan. Water-jacket problems are first considered, followed by a comparison of pump and gravity (thermosyphon) systems of circulation. The next section is devoted to radiator requirements. The balance of the paper relates to the fan. Five curves show graphically the correlations of the various factors of cooling, power consumed, air velocity and volume, engine speed, fan speed, air and water temperatures and the element of time, the results applying to different types and sizes of fans. These curves are of service in the selection of fans for radiator cooling purposes. The classification of fans, fan power consumption and speed, fan belts and pulleys, disadvantages of high fan speed, types of fan bearings, and applications of fans are the subjects next taken up.
This paper first traces the early development of aviation engines in various countries. The six-cylinder Mercedes, V-type twelve-cylinder Renault, and six-cylinder Benz engines are then described in detail and illustrated. Various types of Sunbeam, Curtiss, and Austro-Daimler are also described. The effect of offset crankshafts, as employed on the Benz and Austro-Daimler engines, is illustrated by pressure and inertia diagrams and by textual description. The paper concludes with a section on the requirements as to size of aviation engines, four curves showing the changing conditions which affect the engine size requirements. These curves relate to variations of temperature, air density, engine speed, airplane speed and compression ratio required to compensate for decrease in air density, all as related to varying altitude.
This paper emphasizes the importance of using standardized testing equipment in order that mental calculations may be avoided in interpreting the reports of other engineers. The situation and environments of the engine-testing plant, cooperation among the men conducting tests, standardized methods of conducting tests, value of venturi meters and testing of accessories are among the subjects discussed in the first part of the paper. The subject of the testing of engine cooling systems is treated at some length, the importance of obtaining operating conditions being emphasized. The paper concludes with two sections covering spark-plug testing and tests for preignition.