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Technical Paper

Is There a Need for Human Factors and Error Management in General and Corporate Aviation?

This paper explores the need for human factors and error management within the context of the general and corporate aviation environments. It discusses strategies currently employed in other segments of the aviation industry and how they might be utilized in the corporate and general aviation arenas. It also relates research findings and program successes experienced within the airline industry and makes recommendations as to how a consortial effort by industry organizations might be utilized to employ these strategies in corporate and general aviation operations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper


A analytical technique for predicting the aerodynamic performance of propellers with tip devices (proplets) using vortex lattice method shows that the ideal efficiency of a fixed diameter propeller can be improved by 1-5%. By suitable orientation and sweep of the proplet, the noise analysis method presented predicts that propellers with tip devices will have approximately the same noise as propellers without tip devices. Therefore proplets can be added to a fixed diameter propeller to improve the efficiency with no increase in noise or the noise may be reduced by decreasing the diameter with no loss in aerodynamic efficiency.
Technical Paper

Average Value Modeling of Finite Inertia Power Systems with Harmonic Distortion

Typically, average-value models of power system components neglect harmonic information. Herein, a systematic method of including harmonic information in average-value models based on the theory of multiple reference frames is set forth. Computer simulation results show that when there is significant harmonic distortion of the ac distribution bus the models presented herein are more accurate than traditional average-value models. Furthermore, much of the computational advantage of average-value techniques over detailed modeling techniques is retained.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification

A methodology for modeling elastomeric mounts as nonlinear lumped parameter models is discussed. A key feature of this methodology is that it integrates dynamic test results under different conditions into the model. The first step is to model the mount as a linear model that is simple but reproduces accurately results from dynamic tests under small excitations. Frequency Response Functions (FRF) enables systematic calculation of the parameters for the model. Under more realistic excitation, the mount exhibits non-linearity, which is investigated in the next step. For nonlinear structures, a simple and intuitive method is to use time-domain force-displacement (F-x) curves. Experiments to obtain the F-x curves involve controlling the displacement excitation and measuring the induced forces. From the F-x curves, stiffness and damping parameters are obtained with an optimization technique.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Techniques for Steering of Tracked Agricultural and Forestry Vehicles

A procedure for simulating the dynamics of agricultural and forestry machines using mechanical system simulation software is presented. A soil/track interface model including rubber-track and steel-track was introduced as well as equations that can be used to model mechanical and hydraulic power trains commonly found in tracked vehicles. Two rubber-tracked vehicles (agricultural tractors) and two steel-tracked machines (forestry vehicles) were simulated to illustrate the technique, and some analysis results are presented. The examples given in this paper are based on the author’s research over the past several years.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Best Practices

Throughout the industry, organizations struggle with the task of implementing effective human factors programs aimed at reducing maintenance errors. Almost universally, many barriers have frustrated these efforts. In 1998 and 1999, the National Transportation Safety Board sponsored two workshops designed at identifying barriers to the implementation of human factors programs and to explore what was working and what was not working among the many industry efforts. This paper explores the findings of these workshops. In addition, it will report findings of Purdue University studies that reveal a rapid deterioration of even the most successful human factors programs. The research findings disclose several “disconnects” within most organizations which rapidly negate the positive effects of successful human factors and error management training and nullify many proactive human factors programs.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Counter-Rotating Propeller Systems

A vortex lattice method for the aerodynamic analysis of counter-rotation propellers was developed. This model along with an unsteady Sears analysis for correcting the quasi-steady loadings that are obtained from the vortex lattice model were used to predict the performance of counter-rotation propeller systems. The method developed shows good correlation with experimental results. The investigation into the unsteady loadings on each of the propellers indicates that significant variations in loading occur due to the unsteady flow and due to the propeller blade passage. These variations were found to be as high as 17 percent of the mean value. The parametric studies that were performed indicate that reducing the rear propeller's diameter or rotational speed results in a loss of efficiency.
Technical Paper

Swirl-Spray Interactions in a Diesel Engine

Swirl in Diesel engines is known to be an important parameter that affects the mixing of the fuel jets, heat release, emissions, and overall engine performance. The changes may be brought about through interactions of the swirling flow field with the spray and through modifications of the flow field. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of the swirl with sprays in a Diesel engine through a computational study. A multi-dimensional model for flows, sprays, and combustion in engines is employed. Results from computations are reported with varying levels of swirl and initial turbulence in two typical Diesel engine geometries. It is shown that there is an optimal level of swirl for each geometry that results from a balance between increased jet surface area and, hence, mixing rates and utilization of air in the chamber.
Technical Paper

Truck Ride — A Mathematical and Empirical Study

“Truck Ride” in this study refers to some vehicle ride parameters involved in tractor-trailer combinations. For the study, a mathematical model of a tractor-trailer vehicle as a vibrating system was developed. Principles of vibration theory were applied to the model while a digital computer was employed to investigate the complex system. To parallel the analytical investigation of the tractor-trailer vehicle, vehicle studies were conducted using a magnetic tape recorder and associated instrumentation installed in the tractor. Parameters studied included coupler position on the tractor, laden weight of trailer, spring rates of the different axles of the combination, damping capacity associated with each spring rate, vehicle speed, and “tar strip” spacing of the highway and cab mountings. The mathematical results were used as a basis for empirical study. A comparison of calculated and empirical data are reported.
Technical Paper

Concepts of Human Factors Engineering

This paper discusses the necessity for designing farm tractors which have logical, rather than arbitrary, safety features. The paper is directed primarily to those who buy and use industrial equipment and urges this group to exercise their influence on tractor design by purchasing only those vehicles which meet recommended standards for safety and construction.
Technical Paper

Simulation of MADMEL Power Systems Components

Detailed computer models of system components for More Electric Aircraft have been developed using the Advanced Control System Language (ACSL) and its graphical front-end, Graphic Modeller. Among the devices modeled are a wound-rotor synchronous generator with parallel bridge-rectifier outputs, a switched-reluctance generator, and various loads including a DC-DC converter, an inverter-driven induction motor, and an electro-hydrostatic actuator. Results from the simulations are presented together with corroborating experimental test results.
Technical Paper

An Automated State Model Generation Algorithm for Simulation/Analysis of Power Systems with Power Electronic Components

In this paper, a recently-developed algorithmic method of deriving the state equations of power systems containing power electronic components is described. Therein the system is described by the pertinent branch parameters and the circuit topology; however, unlike circuit-based algorithms, the difference equations are not implemented at the branch level. Instead, the composite system state equations are established. A demonstration of the computer implementation of this algorithm to model a variable-speed, constant-frequency aircraft generation system is described. Because of the large number of states and complexity of the system, particular attention is placed on the development of a model structure which provides optimal simulation efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of a Torque-Based Control Strategy for a Mode-Switching Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle

An increase in the number of vehicles per capita coupled with stricter emission regulations have made the development of newer and better hybrid vehicle architectures indispensable. Although electric hybrids have more visibility and are now commercially available, hydraulic hybrids, with their higher power densities and cheaper components, have been rigorously explored as the alternative. Several architectures have been proposed and implemented for both on and off highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid, which requires an energy conversion from the primary source (engine) to the secondary domain. From he re, the power flows either into the secondary source (high-pressure accumulator) or to the wheels depending upon the state of charge of the accumulator. A mode-switching hydraulic hybrid, which is a combination of a hydrostatic transmission and a series hybrid, was recently developed in the author’s research group.
Technical Paper

RANS and LES Study of Lift-Off Physics in Reacting Diesel Jets

Accurate modeling of the transient structure of reacting diesel jets is important as transient features like autoignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization have been shown to correlate with combustion efficiency and pollutant formation. In this work, results from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of flame lift-off in diesel jets are examined to provide insight into the lift-off physics. The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is also used to computationally model a lifted jet flame at conditions representative of those encountered in diesel engines. An unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) model is used as the turbulent combustion model in both RANS simulations and LES. In the model, a look-up table of reaction source terms is generated as a function of mixture fraction Z, stoichiometric scalar dissipation rate Xst, and progress variable Cst by solving the unsteady flamelet equations.
Technical Paper

Frequency Conversion Controlled Vapor Recovery System by Temperature and Flow Signals: Model Design and Parameters Optimization

Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
Technical Paper

High Performance Actuation System Enabled by Energy Coupling Mechanism

This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
Journal Article

Effects of Controlled Modulation on Surface Textures in Deep-Hole Drilling

Deep-hole drilling is among the most critical precision machining processes for production of high-performance discrete components. The effects of drilling with superimposed, controlled low-frequency modulation - Modulation-Assisted Machining (MAM) - on the surface textures created in deep-hole drilling (ie, gun-drilling) are discussed. In MAM, the oscillation of the drill tool creates unique surface textures by altering the burnishing action typical in conventional drilling. The effects of modulation frequency and amplitude are investigated using a modulation device for single-flute gun-drilling on a computer-controlled lathe. The experimental results for the gun-drilling of titanium alloy with modulation are compared and contrasted with conventional gun-drilling. The chip morphology and surface textures are characterized over a range of modulation conditions, and a model for predicting the surface texture is presented. Implications for production gun-drilling are discussed.
Technical Paper

Inductive or Magnetic Recharging for Small UAVs

We developed a wireless, contact free power transfer mechanism that is safer and robust to imperfect alignment on landing at the base station and that avoid trips back to the launch sites for recharging off power lines. A magnetic field is created using inductor coils on both the transmitting and receiving sides. We use small induction coils around the UAV to increase efficiency and decrease interference. By locating several of these small inductive coils around our quad-rotor UAV, faster recharging is accomplished in comparison to the use of just one coil. In addition, more coils permit larger voltages for more efficient power transfers. On the base station, several folding robotic arms will be used to realign the receiver coils over the transmitter coils. After adequate recharging as measured by battery voltages or power consumption at the base station, the UAV sends a signal to the base station to open the dome to fly away.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.