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Technical Paper

Contemplation of Nozzle Blockage in Open Jet Wind-Tunnels in View of Different ‘Q’ Determination Techniques

1997-02-24
970136
This paper deals with the correction of aerodynamic interference effects taking place between the nozzle of an open jet wind tunnel and a test model. In order to deduce correct aerodynamic coefficients these interference effects have to be allowed for in the determination of the correct wind tunnel speed. In open jet wind tunnels basically two different methods are used to determine the tunnel speed. One is the so-called nozzle-method, utilizing the pressure difference down the nozzle to determine the nozzle exit velocity or tunnel speed. The other procedure is the so-called plenum-method, where the pressure difference between the settling chamber and the surrounding plenum chamber of the test section is measured and used. In this paper it is shown that both methods yield a systematic error, since the velocity distribution in the nozzle differs from the velocity distribution in an unbounded stream measured at the same distance from the model.
Technical Paper

Hardware Based Paravirtualization: Simplifying the Co-Hosting of Legacy Code for Mixed Criticality Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0186
The increased pressure for power, space, and cost reduction in automotive applications together with the availability of high performance, automotive qualified multicore microcontrollers has lead to the ability to engineer Domain Controller ECUs that can host several separate applications in parallel. The standard automotive constraints however still apply, such as use of AUTOSAR operating system, support for legacy code, hosting OEM supplied code and the ability to determine warranty issues and responsibilities between a group of Tier 1 and Tier 2 vendors who all provide Intellectual Property to the final production ECU. Requirements for safety relevant applications add even more complexity, which in most current approaches demand a reconfiguration of all basic software layers and a major effort to redesign parts of the application code to enable co-existence on the same hardware platform. This paper outlines the conflicting requirements of hosting multiple applications.
Technical Paper

Cockpit Module Analysis Using Poroelastic Finite Elements

2014-06-30
2014-01-2078
Strategies for weight reduction have driven the noise treatment advanced developments with a great success considering the already mastered weight decreases observed in the last years in the automotive industry. This is typically the case for all soft trims parts. In the early 2010's a typical european B-segment car soft trims weights indeed 30 to 40% less than in the early 2000's years. The main driver behind such a gap has been to combine insulation and absorption properties on a single part while increasing the number of layers. This product-process evolution was conducted using a significant improvement in the simulation capacities. In that sense, several studies presenting very good correlation results between Transmission Loss measurements and finite elements simulations on dashboard or floor insulators were presented. One may consider that those kinds of parts have already achieved a considerable improvement in performance.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Hardware Security to Secure Connected Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0012
Advanced safety features and new services in connected cars depend on the security of the underlying vehicle functions. Due to the interconnection with the outside world and as a result of being an embedded system a modern vehicle is exposed to both, malicious activities as faced by traditional IT world systems as well as physical attacks. This introduces the need for utilizing hardware-assisted security measures to prevent both kinds of attacks. In this paper we present a survey of the different classes of hardware security devices and depict their different functional range and application. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by conducting a case study on an exemplary implementation of a function-on-demand use case. In particular, our example outlines how to apply the different hardware security approaches in practice to address real-world security topics. We conclude with an assessment of today’s hardware security devices.
Technical Paper

Hydromechanical Sheet Forming (AHU®) -an Innovative Process for the Production of Autobody Parts of New and Further Developed Steel Materials

2000-10-03
2000-01-2674
Hydromechanical sheet forming (AHU®) is an innovative production process with interesting applications, possibilities and potential for the cost-effective manufacture of automobile body parts, particularly with regard to the use of new and improved steels. The targeted, component-specific use of hydro-mechanical sheet forming in automobile construction promises to deliver outstanding results from both a technological and economic point of view.
Technical Paper

Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1488
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems on a Dual-Core Microcontroller

2007-04-16
2007-01-1486
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

End-To-End Protection for SIL3 Requirements in a FlexRay Communication System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0112
This paper proposes end-to-end protection mechanisms to be added to a generic FlexRay network in order to achieve fault detection and integrity levels sufficient for a SIL3 fail safe communication system. The mechanisms are derived from the random hardware failure modes to be considered for communication controllers according to IEC 61508. Mechanisms provided by the FlexRay protocol are pointed out. Additional features necessary to fulfil the requirements are discussed. It is shown how to calculate the failure rate probabilities of the CRC used as a safety code with respect to EN 50159.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0669
In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Production of Autobody Components with Hydromechanical Sheet Forming (AHU®)

2002-07-09
2002-01-2026
The lightweight construction strategies that are demanded by the automobile industry are being employed more and more. These strategies lead to the increasing importance of the forming method and types of materials used. Especially forming technologies based on liquid media have the potential to meet these demands. These forming technologies make it possible to produce parts that have both, more complex geometries and optimized characteristics. This forming technology constitutes an intelligent process management including the significant materials parameters and behavior, the simulation and some new developments especially for the optimization of the quality and the cycle time. Hydromechanical sheet forming (AHU®) is an alternative production (forming) process, with very interesting results and developments for the manufacture of specific automobile components.
Technical Paper

Reference Static and Dynamic Pressures in Automotive Wind Tunnels

2003-03-03
2003-01-0428
The reference pressures are determined in automotive wind tunnels by measurement of pressures and pressure differences at upstream positions along the wind tunnel nozzle. For closed wall wind tunnels usually the so called nozzle method is used, where the volume flux is calculated from a pressure difference measured at the nozzle contour and a calibration factor determined in the empty test section. For open jet wind tunnels a choice is available between nozzle and plenum method. For the plenum method the reference static pressure is taken from the plenum chamber and the dynamic pressure also refers to the plenum conditions. The static reference pressure in closed wall tunnels is calculated by subtracting the dynamic pressure from the total pressure in the settling chamber. In this paper, the definitions and the differences between the two methods are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Timing Analysis for Hypervisor-based I/O Virtualization in Safety-Related Automotive Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1621
The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
Journal Article

Obtaining Diagnostic Coverage Metrics Using Rapid Prototyping of Multicore Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1007
With the introduction of the ISO26262 automotive safety standard there is a burden of proof to show that the processing elements in embedded microcontroller hardware are capable of supporting a certain diagnostic coverage level, depending on the required Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The current mechanisms used to provide actual metrics of the Built-in Self Tests (BIST) and Lock Step comparators use Register Transfer Level (RTL) simulations of the internal processing elements which force faults into individual nodes of the design and collect diagnostic coverage results. Although this mechanism is robust, it can only be performed by semiconductor suppliers and is costly. This paper describes a new solution whereby the microcontroller is synthesized into a large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a test controller on the outside.
Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-0737
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
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