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Technical Paper

Formation of Deposits from Lubricants in High Temperature Applications

Deposit formation is an issue of great significance in a broad range of applications where lubricants are exposed to high temperatures. Lube varnish causes valve-sticking, bearing failure and filter blockage which can lead to considerable equipment downtime and high maintenance costs. Recently this has become a pressing issue in the stationary power generation industry. In order to investigate the chemistry leading to varnish, three samples of varnish-coated components from the lube/hydraulic systems of gas turbines from the field were obtained, along with information on the commercially available formulated oils which were used. Samples of these three fresh oils were analysed by a variety of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed chemical identity of aminic and/or phenolic antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors and antiwear components. The varnish-coated turbine components were also investigated by these methods.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Failure Modes in the DEXRON® III-H GM Cycling and Oxidation Tests

To develop an automatic transmission fluid (ATF) that meets DEXRON® III-H specifications, the ATF must pass two critical tests, the GM oxidation test (GMOT) and the GM cycling test (GMCT), in addition to many other performance tests. The specification on the GMOT is that delta TAN (difference in total acid number compared with the fresh oil) at the end of the test does not exceed 3.25 while the specifications on GMCT are that delta TAN cannot exceed 2.0 and the 1-2 shift time must stay between 0.30 and 0.75 seconds throughout the test. For this work, we analyze oil oxidation and changes in oils' surface tension, drum and band surface degradation and deposit formation. We have found that with respect to the delta TAN limits of the DEXRON® III-H specification, the GMCT is more severe than the GMOT. The effect of base oil chemistry on oxidation in these tests has been quantified. Oil oxidation is not responsible for the GMCT 1-2 shift time increase.
Technical Paper

ATF Additive Effects on Lead Corrosion

This paper presents data on the effect of ATF additives on lead corrosion as measured in a simple bench test and the MERCON® ABOT. The correlation between the bench test and the ABOT test will be discussed. The effect of base oil, carboxylic acids, and oxidation products on lead corrosion will also be discussed. Two types of additives used in automatic transmission fluids can reduce lead corrosion. Each additive has shown a statistically significant linear correlation to lead loss. There is also a statistically significant detrimental interaction between the additives when both are present in the fluid simultaneously. A mechanism to explain this interaction will be presented along with analyses of the lead surfaces after ABOT testing.