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Technical Paper

Design, Simulation, and Testing of a Pressure Wave Supercharger for a Small Internal Combustion Engine

The engines used to power small unmanned aerial systems are often modified commercial products designed for use by hobbyists on small model aircraft at low altitude. For military applications, it is desirable to fly at high altitudes. Maintaining power from the engine at the reduced ambient air pressures associated with high altitudes requires some method of increasing air delivery to the intake manifold. Conventional turbochargers and superchargers are typically very inefficient for the low mass flows associated with small engines. Due to its unique characteristics, a pressure wave supercharger (PWS) can avoid many scaling-related losses. This project designed a small-scale PWS for turbo-normalization of a Brison 95 cc two-stroke engine for a small unmanned aerial vehicle. A larger PWS called the Comprex®, designed by Brown Boveri Company, was simulated using a quasi-one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.
Technical Paper

Mapping of Fuel Anti-Knock Requirements for a Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Engine

Small remotely piloted aircraft (10-25 kg) powered by internal combustion engines typically operate on motor gasoline, which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of >80. To comply with the single-battlefield-fuel initiative in DoD Directive 4140.25, interest has been increasing in converting the 1-10 kW power plants in the aforementioned size class to run on lower AKI fuels such as diesel and JP-8, which have AKIs of ∼20. It has been speculated that the higher losses (short circuiting, incomplete combustion, heat transfer) that cause these engines to have lower efficiencies than their conventional-scale counterparts may also relax the fuel-AKI requirements of the engines. To investigate that idea, the fuel-AKI requirement of a 3W-55i engine was mapped and compared to that of the engine on the manufacturer-recommended 98 (octane number) ON fuel.
Technical Paper

The Repair Design and Technology of Metal Rotor Blades for Mi Family Helicopter - The Approach with the Usage of Reverse Engineering

Polish Armed Forces are currently operating hundred helicopters belonging to Mi family. Metal fuselage is usually resistant to the battle and the human factor. Unfortunately, metal rotor blades of Mi helicopters are sensitive to operating conditions. Single blade is made from monolithic aluminum spar and mutually separated trailing sections, which are bonded to the spar. The sections are constructed of metal sandwich panels. During aggressive military operating conditions blades sections are often damaged by debonding from the spar, fatigue cracks of section skin, dents and perforations as well as erosion. The manufacturer assumed that structurally damaged sections should be exchanged. Provided repair technologies are applied only to cosmetic damages. Unfortunately, there is a limit to number repairs which prevents replacement of two neighboring sections due to the high temperature of curing cycle during the section replacement.
Technical Paper

The An Approach to Damage Detection in Metal Sandwich Structures with Composite-Metal Patch Bonded Repair

The work concerns the selection of measurement parameters for selected non-destructive testing methods of Mi helicopter rotor blades after repair. Considered repair cases involve metal cracks in the sandwich skin and repair damage of honeycomb structure (puncture, dent). In the event of a crack, repair is performed by applying a composite-metal repair package. In case of damage of the core, its broken piece is replaced by a new one and then applied the same metal-composite package as in the case of crack repair. The present work focuses on detecting disbond between skin and core below repair patch and cracks under the repair package. Detecting cracks and assessing their length is important because the repair technology provides the repair package without removing of cracked part of skin. Authors have used laser shearography and C-scan methods for MIA and ET.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of a Large Computational Model Using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

One important issue in uncertainty analysis is to find an effective way for propagating uncertainty through engineering systems which have significant random variation parameters in space or time. In this paper, the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) was selected since this approach can reduce the computational effort in large-scale engineering design applications. An implementation of PCE, which includes different probability distributions, is the focus of this paper. Two existing techniques, a generalized PCE algorithm and transformation methods, are investigated and verified for their accuracy and efficiency for non-normal random variable cases. A nonlinear structural model of an uninhabitated joined-wing aircraft and a three pin-connected rod structure are used for demonstrating the method.
Journal Article

Measurement of Loss Pathways in Small, Two-Stroke Internal-Combustion Engines

The rapid expansion of the market for remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) includes a particular interest in 10-25 kg vehicles for monitoring, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Power-plant options for these aircraft are often 10-100 cm3 internal combustion engines. Both power and fuel conversion efficiency decrease with increasing rapidity in the aforementioned size range. Fuel conversion efficiency decreases from ∼30% for conventional-scale engines (>100 cm3 displacement) to <5% for micro glow-fuel engines (<10 cm3 displacement), while brake mean effective pressure decreases from >10 bar (>100 cm3) to <4 bar (<10 cm3). Based on research documented in the literature, the losses responsible for the increase in the rate of decreasing performance cannot be clearly defined. Energy balances consisting of five pathways were experimentally determined on two engines that are representative of Group-2 RPA propulsion systems and compared to those in the literature for larger and smaller engines.