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Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Electric Drive Stand Issues for Jet Engine Simulation

Next generation aircraft will require more electrical power, more thermal cooling, and better versatility. To attain these improvements, technologies will need to be integrated and optimized at a system-level. The complexity of these integrated systems will require considerable analysis. In order to characterize and understand the implications of highly-integrated aircraft systems, the effects of pulsed-power, highly-transient loads, and the technologies that drive system-stability and behavior, an approach will be taken utilizing integrated modeling and simulation with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). Such experiments can save time and cost and increase the general understanding of electrical and thermal phenomena as it pertains to aircraft systems before completing an integrated ground demonstration. As a first step toward completing an integrated analysis, a dynamometer “drive stand” was characterized to assess its performance.
Technical Paper

Double Bypass Turbofan Engine Modeling including Transient Effects

Modern military engines desire both the fuel efficiency of high-bypass turbofans and the high specific thrust of a low-bypass turbofan. Using traditional engine architectures, performance and efficiency are in conflict, so an engine is usually designed to best meet requirements for its primary mission. While the concept of a variable cycle engine is not new, recent advances in engine architecture technology suggest that adding a second bypass stream to a traditional turbofan can provide significant benefits. This “third stream” (the core flow being the primary stream and the inner bypass being the second stream) airflow can be independently modulated so that engine airflow demand can be matched with the available inlet flow at a variety of operating points, thereby reducing spillage drag. Additionally, the third stream air provides a valuable heat sink for cooling turbine cooling air or dissipating other aircraft heat loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Flow on Intercooler Performance

Two compact intercoolers are designed for the Rotax 914 aircraft engine to increase engine power and avoid engine knock. A study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady airflow on intercooler performance. Both intercoolers use air-to-liquid cross flow heat exchangers with staggered fins. The intercoolers are first tested by connecting the four air outlets of the intercooler to a common restricted exit creating a constant back pressure which allows for steady airflow. The intercoolers are then tested by connecting the four air outlets to a 2.4 liter, 4 cylinder engine head and varying the engine speed from 6000 to 1200 RPM corresponding to decreasing flow steadiness. The test is performed under average flight conditions with air entering the intercooler at 180°F and about 5 psig. Results from the experiment indicate that airflow unsteadiness has a significant effect on the intercooler's performance.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Power Extraction Using Different Real-Time Platforms

Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is being used to investigate aircraft power systems by using a combination of hardware and simulations. This paper considers three different real-time simulators in the same HIL configuration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine simulation and is replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. Variables are passed between the hardware and the simulation in real-time to update model parameters and to synchronize the hardware with the model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Transient Power Extraction on an Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Aircraft/Propulsion/Power System

As aircraft continue to increase their power and thermal demands, transient operation of the power and propulsion subsystems can no longer be neglected at the aircraft system level. The performance of the whole aircraft must be considered by examining the dynamic interactions between the power, propulsion, and airframe subsystems. Larger loading demands placed on the power and propulsion subsystems result in thrust, speed, and altitude transients that affect the aircraft performance and capability. This results in different operating and control parameters for the engine that can be properly captured only in an integrated system-level test. While it is possible to capture the dynamic interactions between these aircraft subsystems by using simulations alone, the complexity of the resulting system model has a high computational cost.
Journal Article

Designing for Large-Displacement Stability in Aircraft Power Systems

Due to the instabilities that may occur in power systems with regulated loads such as those used in military aircraft, ships, and terrestrial vehicles, many analysis techniques and design methodologies have been developed to ensure stable operation for expected operating conditions. However, many of these techniques are difficult to apply to complex systems and do not guarantee large-displacement stability following major disturbances such as faults, regenerative operation, large pulsed loads, and/or the loss of generating capacity. In this paper, a design paradigm is set forth guaranteeing large-displacement stability of a power system containing a significant penetration of regulated (constant-power) loads for any value of load power up to and including the steady-state rating of the source. Initial investigations are performed using an idealized model of a dc-source to determine the minimum requirements that ensure large-displacement stability.
Technical Paper

Transient Turbine Engine Modeling and Real-Time System Integration Prototyping

Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. This paper investigates the possibility of using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis with real time integration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine model simulation and replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. In order to update the model to proper operating conditions, variables are passed between the hardware and the computer model. Using this method, a significant reduction in runtime is seen, and the turbine engine model is usable in a real time environment. Scaling is also investigated for simulations to be performed that exceed the operating parameters of the drive stand.
Technical Paper

Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Complex Turbine Engine and Power System

The interdependency between propulsion, power, and thermal subsystems on military aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and F-22 Raptor continues to increase as advanced war-fighting capabilities including solid-state radars, electronic attack, electric actuation, and Directed Energy Weaponry (DEW) expand to meet Air Force needs. Novel analysis and testing methodologies are required to predict these interdependencies and address adverse interactions prior to costly hardware prototyping. As a result, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has established a dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test-bed wherein transient simulations can be integrated through advanced real-time simulation with prototype hardware for integrated system studies and analysis. This paper details a test-bed configuration where a dynamic simulation of an aircraft turbine engine is utilized to control a dual-head electric drive stand.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Flight Control Development on the Active Aeroelastic Wing Aircraft

A highly modified F/A-18 aircraft is being used to demonstrate that aeroelastic wing twist can be used to roll a high performance aircraft. A production F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft uses a combination of aileron deflection, differential horizontal tail deflection and differential leading edge flap deflection to roll the aircraft at various Mach numbers and altitudes. The Active Aeroelastic Wing program is demonstrating that aeroelastic wing twist can be used in lieu of the horizontal tail to provide autonomous roll control at high dynamic pressures. Aerodynamic and loads data have been gathered from the Phase I AAW flight test program. Now control laws have been developed to exploit aeroelastic wing twist and provide autonomous flight control of the AAW aircraft during Phase II. Wing control surfaces are being deflected in non-standard ways to create aeroelastic wing twist and develop the required rolling moments without use of the horizontal tail.
Journal Article

A First Principles Based Approach for Dynamic Modeling of Turbomachinery

As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
Journal Article

Mapping of Fuel Anti-Knock Requirements for a Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Engine

Small remotely piloted aircraft (10-25 kg) powered by internal combustion engines typically operate on motor gasoline, which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of >80. To comply with the single-battlefield-fuel initiative in DoD Directive 4140.25, interest has been increasing in converting the 1-10 kW power plants in the aforementioned size class to run on lower AKI fuels such as diesel and JP-8, which have AKIs of ~20. It has been speculated that the higher losses (short-circuiting, incomplete combustion, heat transfer) that cause these engines to have lower efficiencies than their conventional-scale counterparts may also relax the fuel-AKI requirements of the engines. To investigate that idea, the fuel-AKI requirement of a 3W-55i engine was mapped and compared to that of the engine on the manufacturer-recommended 98 octane number (ON) fuel.
Technical Paper

AC Impedance Characterization and Life Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

As part of the DoD/NASA Lithium-Ion and More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) development programs, in-house life-testing and performance characterization of lithium-ion batteries of sizes 1-20 amp-hours (Ah) were performed. Using AC impedance spectroscopy, the impedance behavior of lithium-ion cells with respect to temperature, cycle number, electrode, and state-of-charge was determined. Cell impedance is dominated by the positive (cathode) electrode, increases linearly with cycle number, and exponentially increases with decreasing temperature. From cell performance testing, we have seen the cell behavior is extremely sensitive to the ambient temperature. Preliminary battery performance results as well as AC impedance and life cycle test results are presented below.
Technical Paper

F-16 Battery/Charger Evaluation

As the maintenance and disposal costs of aircraft batteries have risen, it has become critical to increase battery lifetime and to reduce maintenance cycles. This has led to the development of charging techniques designed to increase battery life while continuing to satisfy battery performance requirements. However, the cost of battery chargers accounts for 60% to 80% of the battery/charger system cost. AFRL/PRPB has initiated an in-house project to evaluate F-16 batteries using the existing F-16 charger. The objective is to determine which batteries can pass all F-16 performance and lifetime requirements using this charger. Several batteries were procured from several sources and two F-16 chargers are on loan to us from Sacramento/ALC. Depending on the outcome of this phase the project may be extended to include other aircraft and other chemistries such as Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-Ion. Results to date and future plans will be discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Measurement of Loss Pathways in Small, Two-Stroke Internal-Combustion Engines

The rapid expansion of the market for remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) includes a particular interest in 10-25 kg vehicles for monitoring, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Power-plant options for these aircraft are often 10-100 cm3 internal combustion engines. Both power and fuel conversion efficiency decrease with increasing rapidity in the aforementioned size range. Fuel conversion efficiency decreases from ∼30% for conventional-scale engines (>100 cm3 displacement) to <5% for micro glow-fuel engines (<10 cm3 displacement), while brake mean effective pressure decreases from >10 bar (>100 cm3) to <4 bar (<10 cm3). Based on research documented in the literature, the losses responsible for the increase in the rate of decreasing performance cannot be clearly defined. Energy balances consisting of five pathways were experimentally determined on two engines that are representative of Group-2 RPA propulsion systems and compared to those in the literature for larger and smaller engines.