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Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2012-03-23
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model of Water Contamination in Aircraft Fuel Tanks

2011-10-18
2011-01-2540
Water is a contaminant that can lead to fuel system icing, microbial contamination, corrosion and fuel quantity gauging problems and therefore an efficient water management system is required in order to maximise the performance of an aircraft's fuel system. This paper describes a time-transient aircraft fuel tank model with water contamination, due to the principal mechanisms of dissolution, suspension, condensation and transportation. The tank model presented is a component of the NEPTUNE fuel system model which was developed for Airbus using the A380 as an example aircraft. A description of the physics of water contaminated fuel is given and of how this has been incorporated into a mathematical model of an aircraft fuel tank. A modular approach is demonstrated which enables interconnecting fuel tanks to be configured in larger systems in a flexible and easily understood manner.
Technical Paper

Engine Control, An Aircraft Atypical Computer: How to Set the Standard?

2011-10-18
2011-01-2543
Four years ago Airbus became actively involved in the SAE E36, Electronic Engine Control committee. This paper presents an Airframe Manufacturer view of one current working practices discussion relative to the FADEC electrical hardware change and describes an Airframe Manufacturer views on the committee's effectiveness along with a vision for its future. The SAE E36 committee is a representation of the propulsion control engineering community. The members comes from Airworthiness Authorities and other government and military agencies, airframers, engine manufacturers and control suppliers from North America, South America and Europe (including Russia). An active involvement allows an aircraft manufacturer to participate actively in the process and “to set the standard”. An additional benefit is to be aware of “what's hot”.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Safety Assessment for the Three Stages of Refinement of the System Development Process in ARP4754A

2011-10-18
2011-01-2548
Model Based Safety techniques have been developed for a number of years, though the models have not been customised to help address the safety considerations/ actions at each refinement level. The work performed in the MISSA Project looked at defining the content of “safety models” for each of the refinement levels. A modelling approach has been defined that provides support for the initial functional hazard analysis, then for the systems architectural definition level and finally for the systems implementation level. The Aircraft functional model is used to apportion qualitative and quantitative requirements, the systems architectural level is used to perform a preliminary systems safety analysis to demonstrate that a system architecture can satisfy qualitative and quantitative requirements.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Hypervisors for Security-Enhanced Avionics Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2805
Traditionally, software in avionics has been totally separated from open-world software, in order to avoid any interaction that could corrupt critical on-board systems. However, new aircraft generations need more interaction with off-board systems to offer extended services, which makes these information flows potentially dangerous. In a previous work, we have proposed the use of virtualization to ensure dependability of critical applications despite bidirectional communication between critical on-board systems and untrusted off-board systems. We have developed a test bed to assess the performance impact induced by the use of virtualization. In this work, various configurations have been experimented that range from a basic machine without an OS up to the complete architecture featuring a hypervisor and an OS running in a virtual machine. Several tests (computation, memory, network) are carried out, and timing measures are collected on different hypervisors.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diagnosis for Sustainable Flight Guidance and Control: The European ADDSAFE Project

2011-10-18
2011-01-2804
The state-of-practice for aircraft manufacturers to diagnose guidance & control faults and obtain full flight envelope protection at all times is to provide high levels of dissimilar hardware redundancy. This ensures sufficient available control action and allows performing coherency tests, cross and consistency checks, voting mechanisms and built-in test techniques of varying sophistication. This hardware-redundancy based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) approach is nowadays the standard industrial practice and fits also into current aircraft certification processes while ensuring the highest level of safety standards. In the context of future “sustainable” aircraft (More Affordable, Smarter, Cleaner and Quieter), the Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) design objectives, originating from structural loads design constraints, are becoming more and more stringent.
Technical Paper

Flight Parameter Estimation for Augmented Flight Control System Autonomy

2011-10-18
2011-01-2801
In the framework of the aircraft global optimization, for future and upcoming programs, current research interests include more Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) autonomy for a more easy-to-handle aircraft. A possible solution is to increase the number of redundant flight parameter sensors but to the detriment of the aircraft weight and so to the cost and performances. This paper proposes an algorithm using PLS (Partial Least Squares) to estimate a flight parameter from independent sensor measurements. The estimates are then used as so-called “software” or “virtual” sensors, allowing aircraft weight saving. This algorithm is based on an iterative processing and thus can be used in real time in the embedded flight control computer. Furthermore, the resulting flight parameter estimates can be used to detect failures. Different detection strategies are proposed and results show that this method can lead to robust detections.
Technical Paper

Future Potentials on Hydraulic Power Generation Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2796
In the past decades hydraulic systems have dominated actuation tasks in aerospace applications. Even today hydraulic actuation remains in first line for primary flight controls as well as for heavy consumers such as landing gear or auxiliary applications in the perimeter of military functions. Also in future, hydraulic systems and its consumers are candidates to fulfil operational and functional requirements and provide respective improvements to ensure product competitiveness. Thus, this paper deals with potential improvements on hydraulic system level such as, fluid monitoring and light weight applications linked to impacts on aircraft level or interfacing systems.
Technical Paper

Software Complex for Riveting Process Simulation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2772
The presented paper describes the software complex developed in St. Petersburg Polytechnical University for AIRBUS aimed at simulation of aircraft assembly process. Previous version of this complex was described in [1].
Technical Paper

Flight Test Identification Methods for Loads Models and Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2763
The Loads discipline contributes to the aircraft structural design by delivering shear, moment and torque (SMT, loads) all across the airframe resulting from application of aircraft airworthiness requirements as laid down in the CS 25/FAR 25 regulations and in some domestic ones. Loads computation considers the maneuver and gust conditions prescribed therein as well as other special design conditions. It is based on very detailed modeling, accounting for aerodynamics in all configurations, mass properties, flexibility of the airframe, flight control laws and retarded laws, hydraulic actuation, and specification of flight control system failure conditions. The resulting shear loads are processed and refined (e.g. nodal loads) and taken into account by the stress department for structural design.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Conventional and Unconventional Aircraft Configurations

2011-10-18
2011-01-2762
During the conceptual design phase, the aircraft stability and control derivatives (aerodynamic coefficients) can be estimated by using fast computational means. Aerodynamic potential codes like the Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) or the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) are very easy to use and are capable of estimating these coefficients accurately as well as providing remarkable insight into wing aerodynamics and components interaction. Compared to the VLM, the DLM (originally used for aeroelastic computations) allows prediction of the steady as well as unsteady stability and control derivatives. The relationships involving these coefficients and the airplane's dynamic behaviour are well known, like for example the one relating the pitch damping derivative and the damping ratio of the Short Period mode.
Technical Paper

Considerations on an Integral Flight Physics Model with Application to Loads Analysis

2011-10-18
2011-01-2767
Increasing technical dependencies between the engineering disciplines driving the overall design of an aircraft and improving optimization techniques that make use of these interactions blur the lines between distinct disciplines and create demand for a harmonized flight physics model. In this paper we present considerations on a general framework that allows the representation of the equations and data from various domains in an object-oriented and scalable structure. Emphasis is put on the loads aspect with the distinct fields of gust loads, maneuver loads and ground loads analysis, which are essential for structural design. A fully generic, grid based data structure is presented, which is suitable for models of different granularity and applicability. All data is represented in this general form independent of its origin and may be transformed in between the different representations using splines. Coordinate transformations are handled automatically.
Technical Paper

On-line Estimation of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

2011-10-18
2011-01-2769
The introduction of Fly-By-Wire (FBW) and the increasing level of automation contribute to improve the safety of civil aircraft significantly. These technological steps permit the development of advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. Accordingly, this higher complexity requires extending the availability of aircraft states, some flight parameters becoming key parameters to ensure a good behaviour of the flight control systems. Consequently, the monitoring and consolidation of these signals appear as major issues to achieve the expected autonomy. Two different alternatives occur to get this result. The usual solution consists in introducing many functionally redundant elements (sensors) to enlarge the way the key parameters are measured. This solution corresponds to the classical hardware redundancy, but penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, power consumption, space requirements, and extra maintenance needs.
Technical Paper

Virtual Testing for High Lift Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2754
Improving the verification and certification process of the high lift system by introduction of virtual testing is one of the approaches to counter the challenges related to testing of future aircraft, in terms of performing more tests of more complex systems in less time. The quality of the applied modelling methods itself and the guarantee of a completely traceable simulation lifecycle management along the aircraft development are essential. The presentation shows how existing processes for the management of all test related data have to be extended to cover the specifics of using multi body simulation models for virtual tests related to high lift failure cases. Based on a demonstrator, MSC Software GmbH and Airbus developed and are still refining the SimManager based “High Lift System Virtual Test Portal”. This portal has to fulfil on the one side global requirements like data management, data traceability and workflow management.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation for Aircraft Preliminary Design

2011-10-18
2011-01-2761
The ACARE 2020 vision for commercial transport aircraft targets a 50% reduction per passenger kilometer in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, with a 20-25% reduction to be achieved through airframe improvements. This step change in performance is dependent on the successful integration and down-selection of breakthrough technologies at early stage of aircraft development process, supported by advanced multidisciplinary design capabilities. Conceptual design capabilities, integrating more disciplines are routinely used at Future Project Office. The challenge considered here is to transition smoothly from conceptual to preliminary design whilst maintaining a true multidisciplinary approach. The design space must be progressively constrained, whilst at the same time increasing the level of modelling fidelity and keeping as many design options open for as long as possible.
Technical Paper

Innovation Readiness: Past and Current Drivers in Aeronautical Engineering

2011-10-18
2011-01-2501
This paper proposes a rearview on aeronautical innovation, addresses some 2000-2010 new products, and suggests elements of future vision, serving passengers aspirations. Over 100 years, aeronautics brilliantly domesticated flight: feasibility, safety, efficiency, international travel, traffic volume and noise, allowing airlines to run a business, really connecting real people. Despite some maturations, new developments should extend the notion of passenger service. So far, turbofans became silent and widebodies opened ‘air-bus’ travel for widespread business, tourism or education. Today airports symbolize cities and vitalize regional economies. 2000-2010 saw the full double-decker, the new eco-friendly freighter and electronic ticketing. In technology, new winglets and neo classical engines soon will save short-range blockfuel. In systems and maintenance, integrated modular avionics and onboard data systems give new flexibility, incl by data links to ground.
Technical Paper

A New Approach Based on Statistical Modeling of Electrical Consumption for Electrical Generator Demand Estimation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2669
With the last generation of large aircraft, the electrical needs have increased to reach a power close to 1MW. A power increase directly impacts one of the prominent criterions in aircraft design process: weight. Therefore, designers face the challenge to reduce generation while the power demand is increasing. The proposed paper details a methodology based on statistical approach to estimate the electrical consumption of an electrical network. Moreover, the modeling proposed in this paper allows taking into account peaks defined by their power and duration. Based on in-service measurements on commercial aircraft flights, this study proposes two methods to estimate electrical consumption of an electrical network. The first method is described. Based on modeling thanks to an efficient clustering, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed on all the loads to estimate the electrical power on the network with relevant results.
Technical Paper

Reducing Energy Use in Aircraft Component Manufacture - Applying Best Practice in Sustainable Manufacturing

2011-10-18
2011-01-2739
Rising energy costs and increased regulation in recent years have caused industrialists to investigate how to apply ‘energy efficiency’ to their manufacturing operations. As well as reducing operating costs, the benefits of a ‘green’ image as a market differentiator are beginning to be realised. The literature describes the successful implementation of a variety of approaches to energy reduction, with particular focus on energy intensive industries (such as foundries) and on improvements to building services (such as lighting). However, a systematic approach to applying sustainable practices to the manufacturing processes involved in the production of high value products, such as aircraft, is noticeably absent. This paper describes how a number of sustainable manufacturing approaches have been combined, enhanced and applied to the shop floor of a manufacturing facility in the UK responsible for the production of large component assemblies for the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

Eco-efficient Materials for Aircraft Application

2011-10-18
2011-01-2742
Due to the importance of fulfilling the actual and upcoming environmental legislation, it is an Airbus main target to develop eco-efficient materials. Under consideration of the economical effects, these processes will be implemented into the production line. This paper gives an overview of Airbus and its partners research work, the results obtained within the frame of the European funded, integrated technology demonstrator (ITD) ECO Design for Airframe. This ITD is part of the joint technology initiative Clean Sky. Developments with different grade of maturity from “upstream” as the investigation of materials from renewable recourses up to materials now in use in production as low volatile organic compounds cleaner are under investigation. As a basis for future eco-efficient developments an approach for a quantitative life cycle assessment will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2011-10-18
2011-01-2745
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we simplify specific jigs used to maintain parts during drilling operations? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons.
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