Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves
In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.