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Technical Paper

Columbus Active Thermal Control Equipment Development

2005-07-11
2005-01-2769
The Columbus laboratory module for the International Space Station (ISS) uses active thermal control for cooling of avionics and payload in the pressurized compartment. The Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) is based on a water loop rejecting waste heat to the Medium Temperature Heat Exchanger and Low Temperature Heat Exchanger on Node 2, part of the US Segment of the ISS. Flow and temperature control in the ATCS is achieved by means of the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) and the 3-Way Modulating Valve (WTMO) units. For the flow control the WPA speed is commanded so that a fixed pressure drop is maintained over the plenum with the avionics and payload branches. Adjusting the WTMO internal flow split permit the two active units to perform the CHX and plenum inlet temperature control. The WPA includes a filter and an accumulator to control the pressure in the ATCS and to compensate for leakage and temperature-dependent volume variations.
Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

2005-07-11
2005-01-3119
ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
Technical Paper

ECS Re-Test Analytical Evaluation

2005-07-11
2005-01-3118
A final test activity was carried out to complete the verification of the Environmental Control System (ECS) performances by experimentally reproducing the thermal hydraulic behaviour of the Environmental Control & Life Support Subsystem (ECLSS) section integrated in the overall Module, expected on analytical basis. A previous test campaign (called Columbus ECS PFM Test) carried out in EADS-Bremen in spring 2003 and described in paper number 2004-01-2425 showed some contradictory data concerning the air loop behaviour. These incoherent test results were related to the environmental and geometrical cabin loop conditions during the on-ground 1g test and to improper position of the sensor measuring the cabin temperature. For this reason a partial repetition of the test has been performed. In particular, this experimental campaign was focused on the verification of the cabin air temperature control, as a consequence of the Temperature Control Valve (TCV) movement.
Technical Paper

A Tool for Flexible and Rapid Thermal Analysis and Design in Feasibility and Preliminary Phases of Space Projects

2005-07-11
2005-01-3053
Feasibility and preliminary phases of space projects are aimed to answer to the very fundamental question whether a spacecraft (S/C) exists that can fulfil the mission objectives. In particular the thermal engineers must assess whether a possible configuration is feasible from the thermal point of view, or what modifications could make it suitable. The paper presents the Thermal Concept Design Tool (TCDT), a new software tool under development at Blue Engineering and Alenia Spazio for the European Space Agency (ESA), designed with the objective to assist the thermal engineers in reducing at minimum the effort required by simulation activities and focusing mainly on conceptual activities during feasibility and preliminary studies.
Technical Paper

The I/R Thermal Balance Test of Radarsat-2: Approach to Verification / Correlation

2005-07-11
2005-01-2988
Radarsat-2 is a commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite for earth observation. [1] The general stowed configuration is shown in Figure 1. In nominal operation mode, once deployed, the large SAR polarimetric Antenna (i.e. able to transmit and receive both horizontal and vertical polarisations) is inclined of about -29.8° versus the nominal direction of geodetic local surface normal (Right Looking mode). When is necessary to take images of South Pole, nominally not visible from SAR, the S/C must be rotated to the +29.8° position (Left Looking mode). During the Radarsat-2 thermal testing the S/C (PFM) was subjected to a first thermal balance/thermal cycling test in vacuum with simulation of external heat fluxes by means of I/R lamps and additional test heaters. A very complex thermal test configuration was required in order to simulate the continually varying thermal environment imposed by the S/C nominal sun-synchronous orbit and attitude.
Technical Paper

The ATV Cargo Carrier Visual Video Target Switching Unit Thermal Design and Qualification

2005-07-11
2005-01-3120
The Visual Video Target Switching Unit (VVTSU) is the control unit dedicated to the Visual Video Target (VVT). The VVTSA, grouping VVTSU and VVT, is a “two-boxes assy”, externally located on ATV Front Cone, used to allow ATV monitoring by crewmembers inside the ISS Service Module, during the final approach up to 500 m from the docking port. Alenia Spazio is the responsible of VVTSA and in particular of the design, assembly and qualification of the VVSTU unit: an Engineering Model (for avionic tests), a Qualification Model and two Flight Units (+ 1 Spare) have been designed, assembled and verified in Torino and L’ Aquila Laboratories. The VVTSU is powered during the Rendezvous and it presents a high power dissipation, if compared with the reduced dimensions. The thermal control of this unit has been realized using passive means: a high conductive coupling with the fixation bracket, jointed with a radiator on the VVTSU top face.
Technical Paper

ATV Thermal Control System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2469
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Thermal Control System (TCS) has the task to ensure the required internal environment at level of pressurized module and to thermally control the not pressurised modules and installed equipment, using passive and active control means, in response to the relevant applicable requirements. The ATV vehicle is assially subdivided into three main modules: the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), the Equipped Avionics Bay (EAB) and the Equipped Propulsion Bay (EPB). Each of these modules present elaborated and specific thermal design solutions, to satisfy the different required operative tasks. The extensive thermal analysis campaign performed at ATV vehicle level and in progress for the next Qualification Review (QR) to justify and support the thermal control design solutions and verification status is described.
Technical Paper

ALTAN, a New Tool for Spacecraft Thermal Simulation

2004-07-19
2004-01-2317
ALTAN (ALenia Thermal ANalyser) is a tool developed in Alenia Spazio, for the thermal simulation of satellites. Distinctive features of ALTAN are the description of the system in terms of thermal objects that can be considered as high level primitives, the accurate modelling of the energy sources (planets and sun) and of the optical properties, the integration in a single tool of the steps of radiative, conductive and thermal calculations and of the post-process of the results. An example of ALTAN application is given for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury, in particular the modelling of the highly variable planet temperature and the directional optical properties of the planet surface.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design Solutions for Space Exposed P/L’s and Pointing Systems on the ISS Express Pallet

2001-07-09
2001-01-2431
The use of the truss of the International Space Station (ISS) for the accommodation of several experiments, in the frame of the “Early opportunity for ISS utilization”, will have a lot of advantages such as the possibility of human or robotics intervention, the recovery of the experiment at the end of its life, visual inspection of the items and cost reduction with respect to an installation on a dedicated satellite. However, from the user point of view, the ISS generates a great number of disturbances and severe environmental conditions for the experiments providing constraints and affecting the performances in different areas (thermal, mechanical, and avionics). The present paper will discuss the thermal aspects (disturbances, constraints and performances) concerning three different projects, developed by Alenia Spazio Turin plant, that will be mounted on the truss of the ISS: Hexapod, Coarse Pointing Device (CPD) and Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt).
Technical Paper

ANNIE, a Tool for Integrating Ergonomics in the Design of Car Interiors

1999-09-28
1999-01-3372
In the ANNIE project - Applications of Neural Networks to Integrated Ergonomics - BE96-3433, a tool for integrating ergonomics into the design process is developed. This paper presents some features in the current ANNIE as applied to the design of car interiors. A variant of the ERGOMan mannequin with vision is controlled by a hybrid system for neuro-fuzzy simulation. It is trained by using an Elite system for registration of movements. An example of a trajectory generated by the system is shown. A fuzzy model is used for comfort evaluation. An experiment was performed to test its feasibility and it showed very promising results.
Technical Paper

Flight Firing Operations on the ITALSAT F1 R-4D-11 Thruster

1991-07-01
911413
This Paper summarizes the main results of the firing operations performed by the Liquid Apogee Engine (LAE) of ITALSAT F1 spacecraft that has been launched Jan. 15,91. This evaluation represents the final check step of the thermal design activities on the LAE & Thermal Shield Assembly and of the firing control strategy definition presented on the Paper: “Thermal Design, testing and firing control strategy of the Liquid Apogee Engine & thermal Shield Assembly for the ITALSAT program” included in the SAE's 20th ICES conference (1990). The ITALSAT mission has been characterized by two LAE firing operations to place the spacecraft in the final geosynchronous orbit; each firing duration being about 37 minutes.
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