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Technical Paper

Columbus Active Thermal Control Equipment Development

The Columbus laboratory module for the International Space Station (ISS) uses active thermal control for cooling of avionics and payload in the pressurized compartment. The Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) is based on a water loop rejecting waste heat to the Medium Temperature Heat Exchanger and Low Temperature Heat Exchanger on Node 2, part of the US Segment of the ISS. Flow and temperature control in the ATCS is achieved by means of the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) and the 3-Way Modulating Valve (WTMO) units. For the flow control the WPA speed is commanded so that a fixed pressure drop is maintained over the plenum with the avionics and payload branches. Adjusting the WTMO internal flow split permit the two active units to perform the CHX and plenum inlet temperature control. The WPA includes a filter and an accumulator to control the pressure in the ATCS and to compensate for leakage and temperature-dependent volume variations.
Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
Technical Paper

Integral: 2.5 Y ears on Orbit - Thermal P erformance and Lesson Learnt

The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, It was successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome and after a dedicated Commissioning Phase it was ready to start its scientific mission. After 2 years the first lifetime goal (nominal lifetime) was reached and it entered the extended lifetime (3 additional years) Alenia Spazio, who had the role of Prime Contractor, was fully responsible of the Thermal Control of the satellite. During 2.5 years the satellite was carefully monitored and the thermal control design mounted on it has been capable to meet all the thermal requirements, providing the optimal thermal environment.
Technical Paper

The ATV Cargo Carrier Visual Video Target Switching Unit Thermal Design and Qualification

The Visual Video Target Switching Unit (VVTSU) is the control unit dedicated to the Visual Video Target (VVT). The VVTSA, grouping VVTSU and VVT, is a “two-boxes assy”, externally located on ATV Front Cone, used to allow ATV monitoring by crewmembers inside the ISS Service Module, during the final approach up to 500 m from the docking port. Alenia Spazio is the responsible of VVTSA and in particular of the design, assembly and qualification of the VVSTU unit: an Engineering Model (for avionic tests), a Qualification Model and two Flight Units (+ 1 Spare) have been designed, assembled and verified in Torino and L’ Aquila Laboratories. The VVTSU is powered during the Rendezvous and it presents a high power dissipation, if compared with the reduced dimensions. The thermal control of this unit has been realized using passive means: a high conductive coupling with the fixation bracket, jointed with a radiator on the VVTSU top face.
Technical Paper

ATV Thermal Control System

The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Thermal Control System (TCS) has the task to ensure the required internal environment at level of pressurized module and to thermally control the not pressurised modules and installed equipment, using passive and active control means, in response to the relevant applicable requirements. The ATV vehicle is assially subdivided into three main modules: the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), the Equipped Avionics Bay (EAB) and the Equipped Propulsion Bay (EPB). Each of these modules present elaborated and specific thermal design solutions, to satisfy the different required operative tasks. The extensive thermal analysis campaign performed at ATV vehicle level and in progress for the next Qualification Review (QR) to justify and support the thermal control design solutions and verification status is described.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Thermal Verification & Flight Data of Integral and Artemis Satellites

The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, while ARTEMIS (Advanced Data Relay and Technology Mission) is an ESA program to be used for data relay and technology demonstration. ARTEMIS was launched on the 12th of July 2001 with an Ariane V launcher from CSG, after successful completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on PFM (1998). INTEGRAL has been successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome, after completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on STM (1998) and PFM (2002).
Technical Paper

The Thermal Environmental Control (TEC) of the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL): a combined (Water/Air) thermal design solution for a Columbus Active Rack

The Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL) is an advanced multi-user facility for conducting fluid physics research in microgravity conditions. It will be installed in the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) scheduled for launch in 2004. FSL is being developed by a European industrial team, led by ALENIA SPAZIO of Italy, and managed by the European Space Agency (ESA). The FSL Thermal Environment Control (TEC) establishes a defined thermal environment during the complete experiment duration to keep the experiment and the supporting subsystems within their thermal requirements. The TEC is further subdivided into three sections. The Air Cooling Section is based on the Avionics Air Assembly (AAA) which generates air streams inside the Facility to collect, by forced convection, the waste heat from the electronics belonging to the various Subsystems. The Secondary Water Loop (SWL) cooling Section provides the cooled water to the Experiment Container.
Technical Paper

Flight Firing Operations on the ITALSAT F1 R-4D-11 Thruster

This Paper summarizes the main results of the firing operations performed by the Liquid Apogee Engine (LAE) of ITALSAT F1 spacecraft that has been launched Jan. 15,91. This evaluation represents the final check step of the thermal design activities on the LAE & Thermal Shield Assembly and of the firing control strategy definition presented on the Paper: “Thermal Design, testing and firing control strategy of the Liquid Apogee Engine & thermal Shield Assembly for the ITALSAT program” included in the SAE's 20th ICES conference (1990). The ITALSAT mission has been characterized by two LAE firing operations to place the spacecraft in the final geosynchronous orbit; each firing duration being about 37 minutes.
Technical Paper

Review of Italsat Thermal Performances Throughout the First Eighteen Months of Operational Life

Italsat F1 is a communication satellite sponsored by the Italian Space Agency and developed by Alenia Spazio. The spacecraft consists with a platform, which provides all the required services, and three payloads: a global beam package, a multibeam package for domestic communication services at 20/30 GHz, and an experimental propagation package at 40/50 GHz which embraces the European continent. Italsat F1 was sent off by an Ariane IV launcher from the Kourou Space Center in French Guyana on January 16th,1991, and it has been operating since February 1991. Having gone through a complete cycle of solstices and equinoxes, Italsat experienced the extreme environmental conditions at its beginning of life. The flight data collected throughout the first year of operational life enabled a review of the spacecraft thermal performances. This paper presents an overview of in-orbit observed temperatures.