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Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project - 2006 Update

2006-07-17
2006-01-2161
The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2006-07-17
2006-01-2094
The International Space Station (ISS) supplies and recycles water. Until the water system loop is closed with 100 percent recycling, monitoring water usage on-orbit is critical. The water supply on-orbit is monitored to stay above the skip cycle. If the rate is higher than predicted, then the water supply may become too low to support the crew. Both U.S. and Russian water experts use the water usage rate to determine the quantity of water to be re-supplied on each vehicle. The paper provides an overview of the ISS water system. It discusses the newly revised water balance. The paper describes the methodology used to calculate water usage rates. The analysis provides the water usage rates for each Expedition crew. The analysis compares these results to the consumable reports and the Russian water expert reports. The paper provides a discussion of the results of the various usage rates. It provides the most accurate methods for assessing water usage.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2004 - 2005

2005-07-11
2005-01-2777
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2004 and February 2005. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

2005-07-11
2005-01-3119
ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
Journal Article

Columbus Thermal Hydraulic Operations with US Payloads

2009-07-12
2009-01-2555
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Tau Parallel Kinematic Machine for Aerospace Application

2009-11-10
2009-01-3222
A consortium of interested parties has conducted an experimental characterization of two Tau parallel kinematic machines which were built as a part of the EU-funded project, SMErobot1. Characteristics such as machine stiffness, work envelope, repeatability and accuracy were considered. This paper will present a brief history of the Tau parallel machine, the results of this testing and some comment on prospective application to the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

Integral: 2.5 Y ears on Orbit - Thermal P erformance and Lesson Learnt

2005-07-11
2005-01-2989
The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, It was successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome and after a dedicated Commissioning Phase it was ready to start its scientific mission. After 2 years the first lifetime goal (nominal lifetime) was reached and it entered the extended lifetime (3 additional years) Alenia Spazio, who had the role of Prime Contractor, was fully responsible of the Thermal Control of the satellite. During 2.5 years the satellite was carefully monitored and the thermal control design mounted on it has been capable to meet all the thermal requirements, providing the optimal thermal environment.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Evaluation of VFR Heliport Operations in an Obstacle-Rich Environment

1997-10-13
975532
A study was conducted to investigate the impacts of obstacles on pilot performance, workload, and perceptions of safety in a visual flight rule (VFR) obstacle-rich environment (ORE). The study was conducted using a piloted simulation of a single-rotor, multi-engine helicopter operating in a highly detailed urban visual scene database. The database contained multiple obstacle types, with variable obstacle heights and densities. Nine pilots completed the approaches and departures into and out of a heliport located in the center of the generic urban environment. Two flight routes offered unique presentations of terrain and obstacle types. Obstacle height/density and time of day/lighting parameters were systematically manipulated. A multi-dimensional data collection methodology employing the simultaneous collection of direct aircraft state, pilot performance data, pilot physiological data and pilot subjective responses was employed.
Technical Paper

A Requirements-Based CNS/ATM Architecture

1998-09-28
985552
This paper identifies an approach to the definition of a National Airspace System (NAS) architecture which will support the future development of the U.S. air transportation system, consistent with long-range needs of the various users of the NAS. The approach outlined identifies the development of an FAA preliminary design methodology, with supporting tools and processes to provide the basis for NAS modernization. This approach begins with the quantification of the primary long-range objectives of the NAS, which the system architecture must support over its design life. These objectives are the basis of the mission analysis and requirements development, which, in turn, are used for technology tradeoff studies and the baselining of an architecture for evaluation.
Technical Paper

ATV Thermal Control System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2469
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Thermal Control System (TCS) has the task to ensure the required internal environment at level of pressurized module and to thermally control the not pressurised modules and installed equipment, using passive and active control means, in response to the relevant applicable requirements. The ATV vehicle is assially subdivided into three main modules: the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), the Equipped Avionics Bay (EAB) and the Equipped Propulsion Bay (EPB). Each of these modules present elaborated and specific thermal design solutions, to satisfy the different required operative tasks. The extensive thermal analysis campaign performed at ATV vehicle level and in progress for the next Qualification Review (QR) to justify and support the thermal control design solutions and verification status is described.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003 - 2004

2004-07-19
2004-01-2382
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Electronic Systems Health Monitoring Using Electromagnetic Emissions

2004-11-02
2004-01-3161
This paper provides an overview of a method to assess the health of electronic circuits by non-invasively monitoring the electromagnetic emissions. Two phases of laboratory testing have been done to date, during which subtle functional degradations were added to circuitry to simulate several “soft” electronic failure mechanisms which progressively lead to reduced circuitry performance prior to becoming a “hard” failure, detectable by standard built-in tests. The hardware tested included a desktop PC power supply during initial concept feasibility activities, followed by subsequent testing of a COTS triplex channel, distributed, digital flight control system. Lab testing details, data analysis results, and algorithm development are described.
Technical Paper

ESM Analysis of COTS Laundry Systems for Space Missions

2002-07-15
2002-01-2518
Clothing supply has been examined for historical, current, and planned missions. For STS, crew clothing is stowed on the orbiter and returned to JSC for refurbishment. On Mir, clothing was supplied and then disposed of on Progress for incineration on re-entry. For ISS, the Russian laundry and 75% of the US laundry is placed on Progress for destructive re-entry. The rest of the US laundry is stowed in mesh bags and returned to earth in the Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) or in the STS middeck. For previous missions, clothing was supplied and thrown away. Supplying clothing without washing dirty clothing will be costly for long-duration missions. An on-board laundry system may reduce overall mission costs, as shown in previous, less accurate, metric studies. Some design and development of flight hardware laundry systems has been completed, such as the SBIR Phase I and Phase II study performed by UMPQUA Research Company for JSC in 1993.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control And Life Support System Status: 2001-2002

2002-07-15
2002-01-2494
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between May 2001 and April 2002. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with Phase 2 completion accomplished during this period. Work continued on the Phase 3 elements with Node 3 proceeding toward a final design review and the regenerative ECLS equipment proceeding into manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions – Preliminary Results

2002-07-15
2002-01-2478
Solid Waste Management (SWM) requirements need to be defined prior to determining what technologies should be developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project. Since future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architectures outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions.
Technical Paper

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

2003-07-07
2003-01-2487
Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station's U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBA's service life.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

2002-10-29
2002-01-3206
Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Thermal Verification & Flight Data of Integral and Artemis Satellites

2003-07-07
2003-01-2465
The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, while ARTEMIS (Advanced Data Relay and Technology Mission) is an ESA program to be used for data relay and technology demonstration. ARTEMIS was launched on the 12th of July 2001 with an Ariane V launcher from CSG, after successful completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on PFM (1998). INTEGRAL has been successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome, after completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on STM (1998) and PFM (2002).
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