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Technical Paper

ECLSS Study for a European SpaceHaven

2005-07-11
2005-01-2808
The forthcoming planetary missions require an autonomous crew habitation and a high mass of metabolic consumables. To minimise the launch mass and/or the logistic needs, these missions shall then be based on regenerative technologies able to obtain resources for the human life from the on board produced wastes, guaranteeing a high closure degree of the system. In this context ESA has promoted a preliminary study called SpaceHaven, to understand which functions must be guaranteed for a long term and autonomous mission and to investigate about the hardware/technologies to be exploited to meet the identified functions. A dedicated demonstration program is to be proposed when needed technologies are neither available in Europe nor currently covered by a dedicated technological development.
Technical Paper

CHECS (Closed Habitat Environmental Control Sensors)

2004-07-19
2004-01-2353
Aim of the Closed Habitat Environmental Control Sensors (CHECS) project has been the setting up of a complete, lightweight sensing system for monitoring the ambient conditions of plant growth in space missions. A complete sensor system has been developed and tested, based on a deep knowledge of plant needs, and on the typical plant behaviour in stress conditions. The main characteristic of the system is its compatibility with Silicon technology. This means high integrability, reduced dimensions, low weight, redundancy, simplicity and high reliability. All the sensors composing the systems have been produced by means of well developed solid state technology, including the MicroSystem Technology (MST) and Porous Silicon Technology (PST). The latter has proved in the last year to have considerable advantages over other approaches.
Technical Paper

RADARSAT-2 Thermal Design

2003-07-07
2003-01-2581
This paper describes the thermal design and analysis of RADARSAT-2, a commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite for earth observation. The particular thermal design challenges faced by RADARSAT-2 are the continually varying thermal environment imposed by its dawn-dusk, sun-synchronous orbit and the wide range of operational capabilities of the SAR payload. The SAR antenna is a 15m active array design that incorporates 512 transmit/receive (T/R) modules distributed throughout the antenna panels. The thermal environment for these high-dissipation units must be maintained throughout the various mission configurations. The Bus and the Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which deploys and supports the SAR antenna must provide a thermoelastically stable platform from which to mount the SAR antenna as well as the attitude sensors.
Technical Paper

Extension to SINDA / FLUINT and ESATAN / FHTS for Transient Simulation of Air-Vapour in Pressurised Modules

2000-07-10
2000-01-2521
Thermo-hydraulic mathematical models of manned modules of the International Space Station [ISS] require to simulate also air-vapour flow in Environmental Control Systems [ECS] circuits. Although this can be obtained with available S/W, a complementary solution was developed, in order to overcome some S/W limitations and to ease exchange of models. It consists of a set of FORTRAN subroutines, that can be added to ESATAN/FHTS and SINDA/FLUINT thermo-hydraulic models for dry air, and simulate the effect of vapour in the airflow.
Technical Paper

1500 W Deployable Radiator with Loop Heat Pipe

2001-07-09
2001-01-2194
Two-phase capillary loops are being extensively studied as heat collection and rejection systems for space applications as they appear to satisfy several requirements like low weight, low volume, temperature control under variable heat loads and/or heat sink, operation under on ground and micro gravity conditions, simplicity of mounting and heat transfer through tortuous paths. In 1998–2000 Alenia defined and Lavochkin Association developed the Deployable Radiator on the base of honeycomb panels, axial grooved heat pipes and Loop Heat Pipe. It was designed for on-ground testing.
Technical Paper

MPLM Total Off-Gassing Test Through Different Sampling Methods: Comparison and Experimental Results

2001-07-09
2001-01-2244
The Total Off-gassing test purpose is to determine the identity and quantity of trace gas contaminants offgassed in areas of spacecraft where the crew will breathe the atmosphere. Two different air sampling methods were adopted in parallel during the off-gassing tests on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) by Alenia Spazio. The first method, based on NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) requirements, foresees storage of collected air samples into stainless steel pressure cylinders. The second method proposed by ESA (European Space Agency), uses trace contaminants adsorption on Carbopack™ filled ceramic tubes. Sample lines route the samples collected inside the MPLM cabin, to the respective external collection points. Successively, the stored samples are chemically analyzed by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques and the module offgassing rates are calculated.
Technical Paper

Environmental Control of the Mini Pressurized Logistic Module

1992-07-01
921281
The Mini Pressurized Logistic Module (MPLM) is designed to transport supplies and return cargo requiring a pressurized environment to and from the Space Station Freedom (SSF) via the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Shuttle. The MPLM provides accommodation for a number of cargo racks, including two Freezer/Refrigerators (F/Rs) and one subsystem rack. The maintenance of the habitable conditions for the crew and the control of the MPLM thermal environment are carried out by the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Thermal Control System (TCS). The ECLSS and TCS functional concepts are tailored to the peculiarities of the MPLM design, based on mass and volume minimization, maximum simplification and exploitation of the resources available at the SSF interface.
Technical Paper

Labels and Visual Cues to Reproduce an Earthlike Environment in Space: Going Ahead in Designing Columbus APM Interior Architecture

1992-07-01
921193
Every kind of human activity in space is made at least different on often more difficult by the peculiarity of the environment, characterized by the almost complete lack of gravity. It is difficult to realize, when staying with our own feet firmly on ground, how life could be altered by the absence of the ever present force of gravity! Among all the psychological faculties directly affected by microgravity, easy and quick orientation, and object identification (as they depend on the visual environment) are analyzed. This work follows on from previously published work (cf. ICES '91) by the authors, highlighting the importance of sensible groundrules in color choice for a space environment, to optimize the above-mentioned capabilities, to which crew performance reliability and safety are directly linked.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Reduced Pressure Scenario on the Columbus APM Environmental Control System

1992-07-01
921247
Manned Space Systems are usually designed to support the crew atmospheric conditions equivalent to those at sea level. In phases with frequent Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA), a reduced pressure environment is preferable to facilitate the EVA suit prebreathing procedures. The Columbus Attached Pressurised Module (APM) will face both pressure scenarios during its life. Operation at different pressure levels primarily affects the performance of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of the pressurised elements. A lower air density results in reduced heat exchange, adversely affecting both the crew comfort and the electronics air cooling. This paper reports the results of a study performed to identify the constraints and the numerous potential problem areas related to APM operations at reduced pressure. Effects of the reduced pressure on the environmental parameters have been investigated.
Technical Paper

System Integration and Verification Approach for the Environmental Control System of the Columbus Attached Pressurised Module

1992-07-01
921261
The Attached Pressurised Module (APM) is the European element of the NASA Space Station Freedom (SSF). The environmental control of the APM is obtained through the combined effort of the Water Loops of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) and the Cabin and Avionics Loops of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (ECLSS). Although the specific functions of ECLSS and TCS are separately verified at subsystem (S/S) level, their overall qualification is completed only after having carried out the functional and performance verification of the integrated Environmental Control System (ECS) inside the APM. To this purpose too, an APM Engineering Model (EM) development has been included in the programme. The Engineering Model is the element prototype, fully representative of the APM Flight Model (FM) but for the quality of the EEE components, as they are requested to be MIL-grade but not Hi-Rel.
Technical Paper

Columbus APM Water Loop Architecture Tradeoffs to Meet Space Station Freedom Interface Requirements

1992-07-01
921244
The Columbus Attached Pressurised Module (APM) Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) water loop collects the APM waste heat and transfers it to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Central Thermal Bus (CTB). The interface between the APM water loop and the SSF ammonia loops is achieved with two ammonia/water interloop heat exchangers (IH/X), one being low temperature (LT) and the other moderate temperature (MT). The APM internal water loop provides cooling to payload and subsystem users which have varying temperature requirements at their heat rejection interfaces, and can be categorized as cold branch and warm branch users, (e.g. condensing heat exchanger (CHX) and refrigerator are cold branch users, while Avionic heat exchanger (AHX) and furnace payloads would be warm branch users.)
Technical Paper

Design Concepts for the Thermal Control of a Crew Transport Vehicle

1996-07-01
961542
Under the guidelines established by the European Space Agency (ESA), a specific effort was devoted to define the preliminary design concepts for a Crew Transport Vehicle (CTV) compatible with the Ariane 5 launcher. The mission objectives of this vehicle include the possibility of transporting 4 people (and a limited amount of pressurized payload) to the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), and returning them to Earth safely. Different options were identified at system level, however a modular vehicle was commonly adopted: a Crew Module (CM) designed to withstand the typical phases of the atmospheric re-entry and provide an adequate environment for the crew during all the mission a Resource Module (RM) envisaged to provide the propulsion provisions for orbital transfer and deorbiting; in addition it carries all the necessary resources to support the mission from lift-off until separation from the CM.
Technical Paper

Thermal Comfort in the Columbus Attached Pressurized Module

1996-07-01
961367
The Columbus Attached Pressurised Module (APM) is intended to support a shirt-sleeve environment for crew activities. Top level requirements therefore define a cabin air temperature and humidity range (the so-called “Comfort Box”), extreme air velocities for ventilation in the centra aisle, maximum mean radiant temperature of the cabin walls. Air temperature selectability has to be ensured with adequate accuracy across the whole range. The APM environmental control system, in particular the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) system, is designed and verified against these parameters. Cabin thermal conditions can be evaluated by the APM Integrated Overall Thermal Mathematical Model (IOTMM), representing the general thermal behaviour of the APM, including the THC system. Heat loads due to APM subsystem equipment and payloads, solar flux and the crew itself have been considered in the analyses.
Technical Paper

Crew Interface Analysis for the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module - An Interaction Between Computer Simulation, Task Analysis and Mock-Up Test Evaluation

1994-06-01
941589
A Human Factors Engineering (HFE) analysis has been involved in the design process of the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS) since the beginning, as an integrated part of the design support activities. The support of HFE in the configuration process has been directed towards the optimization of the MPLM design through the analysis and evaluation of all the interfaces occurring in the module - nominal and non-nominal - between the crew, the system and the subsystem equipment. In order to identify and analyze all the crew interfaces occurring inside the module, a systematic approach, involving different disciplines, is necessary. The integration of three different tools such as computer simulation, task analysis and mock-up test activities has been employed as an organic unit, in order to establish a comprehensive collection of useful data.
Technical Paper

CFD Modelling on Fire Detection and Suppression in a Columbus Rack

1994-06-01
941607
The Columbus fire suppression procedure is based on a centralized CO2 distribution system which injects the CO2 stored in a tank into the volume where the fire has to be extinguished. The fire is detected in each volume by means of the so-called REP (Rack Essential Package), which contains a fan and the smoke sensor. In order to assess the Fire Detection and Suppression design concept and to identify possible critical areas, Alenia Spazio - with the support of Flowsolve UK, and on behalf of EUROCOLUMBUS - has performed an analysis using a Computational Fluido-Dynamic (CFD) tool. The rack containing the water pump assembly and other electronic equipment has been chosen for the study. As far as the Fire Detection is concerned, the simulation intends to predict the flow field established in the rack by the ventilation system and the transport of smoke by this velocity field from a supposed point source.
Technical Paper

Thermal Control Issues of a European Unwinged Man Transportation System

1994-06-01
941567
In the frame of the HERMES re-orientation activities, a set of studies has been started to define the most suitable scenario for a Man Transportation System (MTS). The possibility to use a non-winged vehicle to cope with different missions and requirements has been widely investigated, in a competitive study lead by Alenia Spazio as System responsible and performed in collaboration with Dassault Aviation. The study has concentrated first on the selection, from a large number of candidate shapes, of 2 promising vehicle concepts, one in the family of blunt bodies and one in the family of slender bodies. Then the design of the two selected shapes and the assessments of their expected performances have been investigated in greater detail in order to consolidate and validate the conclusions of the trade-offs performed during the first part of the study. This paper focuses on the thermal control issues of the two selected vehicle shapes.
Technical Paper

Columbus APM TCS Design and Development Status

1994-06-01
941566
The redesign of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the requirement of the Columbus programme board to reduce costs have led ESA to change the design and development strategy of the Attached Pressurised Module (APM). A revised APM reference design for integration with the SSF Alpha has been produced with sufficient flexibility to allow adaptation as part of a global space station or to permit operations as part of a European Free Flyer. The main objectives of the redesign have been to simplify the design, reduce the costs and provide increased autonomy from the SSF. The key groundrules for the redesign have been an AR5/ATV launch from the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CGS) into an orbit inclined at 51.6 degrees. The APM has a length equivalent to 5 double racks and a net launch mass of 1200 kg. It will be delivered to the SSF at an altitude of 407 km for a 10-year operational life. Safe disposal will be by ATV.
Technical Paper

Microbial Contamination Control and Prevention During Space H/W Manufacturing and Assembly

1994-06-01
941310
Microorganism accumulation and growth onboard a spacecraft may impact adversely on crew efficiency and safety as well as system, subsystems and payload. The results of test campaigns performed at Alenia Spazio in Summer 1993 are reported here. From them, some simple and effective prevention methods to be applied during the manufacturing and integration phases of a pressurised spacecraft have been identified and are here discussed. Although data obtained from Earth experience may be considered useful, it is uncertain and unfit for space station operational lifespan. Therefore, it is necessary to build a model of the phenomenon, able to provide a series of quantitative data as a function of different parameters related to environmental characteristics, crew, and on-board activities.
Technical Paper

Architecture of the Environmental Control System for the Mini Pressurised Logistics Module

1994-06-01
941309
The Mini Pressurised Logistics Module (MPLM), a cooperative project between NASA and ASI that will be designed, developed, produced, integrated and delivered by Alenia, is a pressurised volume devoted to the resupply and return of Space Station (SS)containerized cargo requiringapressurised environment, via the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). As a servicer for the SS, the MPLM will have to accomplish several trips between Earth and SS in support of logistic needs. Since the active payloads launched with MPLM (freezers and refrigerators) require resources during the transportation phase inside the NSTS, the MPLM has the peculiar capacity to exchange power, data and fluids with the Orbiter before docking to SS. Once docked to SS, the MPLM will be required to provide its full performance, making use of the resources available from the SS Node; nevertheless, in this phase some of the MPLM functions are demanded from the SS.
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