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Technical Paper

Thermal Comfort in the Columbus Attached Pressurized Module

The Columbus Attached Pressurised Module (APM) is intended to support a shirt-sleeve environment for crew activities. Top level requirements therefore define a cabin air temperature and humidity range (the so-called “Comfort Box”), extreme air velocities for ventilation in the centra aisle, maximum mean radiant temperature of the cabin walls. Air temperature selectability has to be ensured with adequate accuracy across the whole range. The APM environmental control system, in particular the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) system, is designed and verified against these parameters. Cabin thermal conditions can be evaluated by the APM Integrated Overall Thermal Mathematical Model (IOTMM), representing the general thermal behaviour of the APM, including the THC system. Heat loads due to APM subsystem equipment and payloads, solar flux and the crew itself have been considered in the analyses.
Technical Paper

Application of the Crew Support Equipment Design Validation Philosophy in the Miriam '95 Programme

Space hardware design, as well as that for hardware destined to work in 1-g environment, needs to be submitted to a complete design verification process before final utilisation in nominal conditions. As space hardware ground verification is difficult and expensive, a design verification philosophy has been developed in order to reach, as far as possible, the highest degree of space hardware reliability and usability and hence to increase crew productivity via a perfect integration of man and machines. This activity is mainly based on a complete hardware testing process (first on ground, then in microgravity simulated environment and, at the end, during a short duration space mission) and on a correct test procedure preparation in order to avoid inconveniences during test execution. Opportunity for an application of the design verification philosophy has been given by Columbus Precursor Flights and the related MIRIAM '95 programme.
Technical Paper

ESACAP Simulations of MPLM Atmosphere Control and Supply Systems

At present, limited tools are available to model atmosphere control and supply systems simply, in order to allow quick design assessments based on analytical performances. In this context, the utilization of PC based ESACAP adapted as an Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS) simulation tool is described. The analyses results shown in this paper refer to the activities of MPLM baseline re-definition carried out in accordance with the Space Station re-configuration. As a consequence, in several cases the described analyses reflect conservative assumptions and have been performed in a parametric way so as to take the uncertainties into account.
Technical Paper

Crew Interface Analysis for the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module - An Interaction Between Computer Simulation, Task Analysis and Mock-Up Test Evaluation

A Human Factors Engineering (HFE) analysis has been involved in the design process of the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS) since the beginning, as an integrated part of the design support activities. The support of HFE in the configuration process has been directed towards the optimization of the MPLM design through the analysis and evaluation of all the interfaces occurring in the module - nominal and non-nominal - between the crew, the system and the subsystem equipment. In order to identify and analyze all the crew interfaces occurring inside the module, a systematic approach, involving different disciplines, is necessary. The integration of three different tools such as computer simulation, task analysis and mock-up test activities has been employed as an organic unit, in order to establish a comprehensive collection of useful data.