Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Effects of Load on Emissions and NOx Trap/Catalyst Efficiency for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1528
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested at constant engine speed (2000 rpm) over a range of loads. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. This allowed examination of the engine-out emissions for late and early injection. Regeneration of the lean NOx trap/catalyst was also examined, as was the efficiency of NOx reduction. NOx stored in the trap/catalyst is released at the leading edge of regenerations, such that the tailpipe NOx is higher than the engine-out NOx for a brief period. The efficiency of NOx reduction was <50% for the lowest loads examined. As the load increased, the efficiency of NOx reduction decreased to near 0% due to excessive catalyst temperatures. Loads sufficiently high to require a rich mixture produce high NOx reduction efficiencies, but in this case the NOx reduction occurs via the three-way catalysts on this vehicle.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Government-Industry Partnerships and Environmental and Safety Solutions

2000-04-02
2000-01-1593
The Advanced Battery Readiness Ad Hoc Working Group, a government- industry forum sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, is charged with assessing environmental and safety issues associated with advanced batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles require sophisticated advanced battery storage systems. Frequently, toxic, reactive, and flammable substances are used in the energy storage systems. Often, the substances have safety, recycling, and shipping implications with respect to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. To facilitate commercialization, reg-ulations must either be modified or newly developed. Government-industry coordination has expedited needed regulatory changes, and promoted other partnerships to achieve environmental and safety solutions.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology Program (CARAT): Accelerating the Commercialization of Innovative Technology

2000-04-02
2000-01-1594
The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology (CARAT) program is designed to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies that will overcome barriers to achieving the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Program. Aimed at harnessing the creativity and capabilities of American small businesses and colleges and universities, this unique technology R&D program seeks to develop and bring advanced technologies into use in production vehicles at a faster rate. CARAT's focus is developing and commercializing technology that overcomes key technical barriers preventing the production of vehicles with ultra-high fuel efficiency. CARAT begins with technologies that already have a firm technical basis and, through a unique three-stage process, ends with fully validated technologies ready for mass production. The program is open to all U.S. entrepreneurs and small businesses, colleges, and universities.
Technical Paper

Breaking Down Technology Barriers for Advanced Vehicles: The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

2000-04-02
2000-01-1595
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), in partnership with industry, is developing transportation technologies that will improve the energy efficiency of our transportation system. Most OAAT programs are focused exclusively on technology development. However, the twin goals of developing innovative technologies and transferring them to industry led OAAT to realize the growing need for people trained in non-traditional, emerging technologies. The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program combines graduate-level education with technology development and transfer by training a new generation of automotive engineers in critical multi-disciplinary technologies, by fostering cooperative research in those technologies, and by transferring those technologies directly to industrial organizations.
Technical Paper

Full Fuel–Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Transportation Fuels Produced from Natural Gas

2000-04-26
2000-01-1505
Because of its abundance and because it offers significant energy and environmental advantages, natural gas has been promoted for use in motor vehicles. A number of transportation fuels are produced from natural gas; each is distinct in terms of upstream production activities and vehicle usage. In this paper, we present greenhouse gas emission impacts of using various natural gas–based transportation fuels. We include eight fuels – compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, Fischer–Tropsch diesel, and electricity – for use in five types of motor vehicles – spark–ignition vehicles, compression–ignition vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, battery–powered electric vehicles, and fuel–cell vehicles. In our evaluation, we separate these fuels and vehicle technologies into near– and long–term options to address technology progress over time.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0989
The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Honda Insight Validation Using PSAT

2001-08-20
2001-01-2538
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software: the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control strategies require validation of the models and controls developed in PSAT. Using ANL's Advanced Powertrain Test Facilities (APTF), more than 50 tests on the Honda Insight were used to validate the PSAT drivetrain configuration. Extensive instrumentation, including the half-shaft torque sensor, provides the data needed for through comparison of model results and test data. In this paper, we will first describe the process and the type of test used to validate the models. Then we will explain the tuning of the simulated vehicle control strategy, based on the analysis of the differences between test and simulation.
Technical Paper

The New PNGV System Analysis Toolkit PSAT V4.1 - Evolution and Improvement

2001-08-20
2001-01-2536
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT, originally proprietary, has been used by both DOE and the “Big Three” as a modeling tool. The number of PSAT users has increased recently because 15 universities participating in the 2001 FutureTruck competition were given the software for their use. PSAT allows companies to look at new types of vehicles (hybrids) and choose the best configuration according to customer expectations within a minimum of time. PSAT, a forward-looking model, allows the user to simulate a large number of different configurations (conventional, series, parallel, and power split). PSAT is well suited for development of control strategies; by using accurate dynamics component models as its code, PSAT can be implemented directly and tested at the bench scale or in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Engine Start Characteristics of Two Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) - Honda Insight and Toyota Prius

2001-08-20
2001-01-2492
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may have key fuel economy and emissions advantages over current conventional vehicles, but they have drawbacks such as frequent engine starts that can slow down market penetration of HEVs. First, the hydrocarbon emissions due to the numerous engine starts would make newly developed HEV powertrains even more demanding on the emission control system. Second, frequent starts may make the engine deteriorate quickly. This study is an attempt to gain a better understanding of the engine start characteristics of two limited-production HEVs (Toyota Prius and Honda Insight). Using fast-response (5 ms) hydrocarbon and NO (nitric oxide) analyzers, the transient emissions were measured in the engine exhaust ports during cold and hot engine starts. On the basis of the experimental findings, several recommendations were made to improve performance and emissions of future HEVs.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Modal Energy and Emissions Model into a PNGV Vehicle Simulation Model, PSAT

2001-03-05
2001-01-0954
This paper describes the integration of a Modal Energy and Emissions Model (MEEM) into a hybrid-electric vehicle simulation model, the PNGV System Analytic Toolkits (PSAT). PSAT is a forward-looking computer simulation model for advanced-technology vehicles. MEEM is a vehicle fuel-consumption and emissions model developed by one of the authors for internal-combustion-engine (ICE) -powered vehicles. MEEM engine simulation module uses a power-demand physical model based on a parameterized analytical representation of engine fuel and emissions production. One major advantage of MEEM is that it does not rely on steady-state engine maps, which are usually not available for most production vehicles; rather, it depends on a list of engine parameters that are calibrated based on regular vehicle dynamometer testing. The integrated PSAT-MEEM model can be used effectively to predict fuel consumption and emissions of various ICE-powered vehicles with both conventional and hybrid power trains.
Technical Paper

Validation Process of a HEV System Analysis Model: PSAT

2001-03-05
2001-01-0953
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine two sources of energy and offer a wide variety of component and drivetrain configurations. However, optimizing the blending of these two energy sources is complex. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT allows users to choose the best configuration and to optimize the control strategy in simulations. The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies developed in PSAT. In this paper, we first describe our capability to validate each component model with an actual component test, using test stand facilities. Once each component model has been validated, ANL can perform tests on a whole HEV by using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Commercial and Prototype HEVs

2001-03-05
2001-01-0951
In recent years, vehicle manufacturers have made great progress in developing and demonstrating commercially available and prototyped hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These vehicles include commercially available gasoline hybrid cars (Toyota Prius and Honda Insight) and Partnership for the Next Generation Vehicle (PNGV) diesel hybrid prototypes (Ford Prodigy, GM Precept, and DaimlerChrysler ESX3). In this paper, we discuss tested and claimed fuel benefits and performance of these commercial and prototyped HEVs relative to conventional vehicles (CVs) that are otherwise similar to these HEVs, except for hybridization. We also describe a reverse-engineering approach to de-hybridize or “conventionalize” these five existing commercial and prototyped HEVs. Because these commercial and prototyped HEVs represent a variety of technological choices, configurations, and development stages, this analysis gives us in-depth knowledge about how each of these vehicles achieves high efficiency.
Technical Paper

Injection Parameter Effects on Diesel Spray Characteristics

2000-10-16
2000-01-2787
This paper reports efforts to study the effect of various injection parameters on macro characteristics of diesel sprays generated by a state-of-the-art common-rail injection system. The main purpose is to validate and extend various correlations available in the literature to the case of sprays generated by common-rail injection systems which are characterized by high injection pressures and small orifice diameters. Experiments were conducted by spraying into a quiescent atmosphere at room temperature. Densities close to in-cylinder conditions at the start of injection were established using pressurized nitrogen. While the measured macro characteristics - spray penetration length and spray cone angle - agreed well with established correlations, distinct deviations could be observed. Possible explanations for such deviations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

2001-05-14
2001-01-1714
When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1706
Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Low-Friction Coatings for Air Bearings in Fuel Cell Air Compressors

2000-04-02
2000-01-1536
In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the U.S. Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. We presents here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

2001-09-24
2001-01-3572
A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

1983-02-01
830221
A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
X