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Technical Paper

Study on Squeeze Mode Magneto-Rheological Engine Mount with Robust H-Infinite Control

2011-04-12
2011-01-0757
Magneto-rheological fluid squeeze mode investigations at CVeSS have shown that MR fluids show large force capabilities in squeeze mode. A novel MR squeeze mount was designed and built at CVeSS, and a dynamic mathematical model was developed, which considered the inertial effect and was validated by the test data. A variant engine mount that will be used for isolating vibration, based on the MR squeeze mode is proposed in the paper. The mathematical governing equations of the mount are derived to account for its operation with MR squeeze mode. The design method of a robust H✓ controller is addressed for the squeeze mount subject to parameter uncertainties in the damping and stiffness. The controller parameter can be derived from the solution of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). The displacement transmissibility is constrained to be no more than 1.05 with this robust H✓ controller. The MR squeeze mount has a very large range of force used to isolate the vibration.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Near-Field Spray and Internal Flow of Single-Hole and Multi-Hole Sac Nozzles using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging and CFD

2011-04-12
2011-01-0681
It is well know that the internal flow field and nozzle geometry affected the spray behavior, but without high-speed microscopic visualization, it is difficult to characterize the spray structure in details. Single-hole diesel injectors have been used in fundamental spray research, while most direct-injection engines use multi-hole nozzle to tailor to the combustion chamber geometry. Recent engine trends also use smaller orifice and higher injection pressure. This paper discussed the quasi-steady near-nozzle diesel spray structures of an axisymmetric single-hole nozzle and a symmetric two-hole nozzle configuration, with a nominal nozzle size of 130 μm, and an attempt to correlate the observed structure to the internal flow structure using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The test conditions include variation of injection pressure from 30 to 100 MPa, using both diesel and biodiesel fuels, under atmospheric condition.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Rule-Based and Instantaneous Optimization for a Single-Mode, Power-Split HEV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0873
Over the past couple of years, numerous Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) powertrain configurations have been introduced into the marketplace. Currently, the dominant architecture is the power-split configuration, notably the input splits from Toyota Motor Sales and Ford Motor Company. This paper compares two vehicle-level control strategies that have been developed to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining acceptable performance and drive quality. The first control is rules based and was developed on the basis of test data from the Toyota Prius as provided by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne's) Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. The second control is based on an instantaneous optimization developed to minimize the system losses at every sample time. This paper describes the algorithms of each control and compares vehicle fuel economy (FE) on several drive cycles.
Journal Article

PHEV Energy Management Strategies at Cold Temperatures with Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement Considerations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0872
Limited battery power and poor engine efficiency at cold temperature results in low plug in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) fuel economy and high emissions. Quick rise of battery temperature is not only important to mitigate lithium plating and thus preserve battery life, but also to increase the battery power limits so as to fully achieve fuel economy savings expected from a PHEV. Likewise, it is also important to raise the engine temperature so as to improve engine efficiency (therefore vehicle fuel economy) and to reduce emissions. One method of increasing the temperature of either component is to maximize their usage at cold temperatures thus increasing cumulative heat generating losses. Since both components supply energy to meet road load demand, maximizing the usage of one component would necessarily mean low usage and slow temperature rise of the other component. Thus, a natural trade-off exists between battery and engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an E85 Split Parallel E-REV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0912
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2009 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Following GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT established team goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in extended-range hybrid electric vehicle. The competition requires participating teams to improve and redesign a stock Vue XE donated by GM. The result of this design process is an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) that uses grid electric energy and E85 fuel for propulsion. The vehicle design is predicted to achieve an SAE J1711 utility factor corrected fuel consumption of 2.9 L(ge)/100 km (82 mpgge) with an estimated all electric range of 69 km (43 miles) [1].
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from RCCI with Direct Injections of Two Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1661
Many concepts of premixed diesel combustion at reduced temperatures have been investigated over the last decade as a means to simultaneously decrease engine-out particle and oxide of nitrogen (NO ) emissions. To overcome the trade-off between simultaneously low particle and NO emissions versus high "diesel-like" combustion efficiency, a new dual-fuel technique called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been researched. In the present study, particle size distributions were measured from RCCI for four gasoline:diesel compositions from 65%:35% to 84%:16%, respectively. Previously, fuel blending (reactivity control) had been carried out by a port fuel injection of the higher volatility fuel and a direct in-cylinder injection of the lower volatility fuel. With a recent mechanical upgrade, it was possible to perform injections of both fuels directly into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

VTool: A Method for Predicting and Understanding the Energy Flow and Losses in Advanced Vehicle Powertrains

2013-04-08
2013-01-0543
A crucial step to designing and building more efficient vehicles is modeling powertrain energy consumption. While accurate modeling is indeed key to effective and efficient design, a fundamental understanding of the powertrain and auxiliary systems that contribute to the energy consumption of a vehicle is equally as important. This paper presents a methodology that has been packaged into a tool, called VTool (short for Vehicle Tool), which can be used to estimate the energy consumption of a vehicle powertrain. The method is intrinsically designed to foster understanding of the vehicle powertrain as it relates to energy consumption and losses while still providing reasonably accurate results. This paper briefly explains the methodology of VTool and demonstrates the capability of VTool as a design tool by presenting 4 example exercises.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

2013-04-08
2013-01-0554
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of In-Cylinder Combustion and Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Compression Ignition Engine Performance Using Different RON Fuels at Light Load Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0900
The effects of different Research Octane Number [RON] fuels on a multi-cylinder light-duty compression ignition [CI] engine were investigated at light load conditions. Experiments were conducted on a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine at Argonne National Laboratory, using two different fuels, i.e., 75 RON and 93 RON. Emphasis was placed on 5 bar BMEP load, 2000 rev/min engine operation using two different RON fuels, and 2 bar BMEP load operating at 1500 rev/min using 75 RON gasoline fuel. The experiments reveal difficulty in controlling combustion at low load points using the higher RON fuel. In order to explain the experimental trends, simulations were carried out using the KIVA3V-Chemkin Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] Code. The numerical results were validated with the experimental results and provided insights about the engine combustion characteristics at different speeds and low load conditions using different fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

Validating Volt PHEV Model with Dynamometer Test Data Using Autonomie

2013-04-08
2013-01-1458
The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary. Since it is not possible to analyze the control without vehicle test data obtained from a well-designed Design-of-Experiment (DoE), a highly instrumented GM Volt, including thermal sensors, was tested at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF).
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated Design Tool for Real-Time Analyses of Performance and Emissions in Engines Powered by Alternative Fuels

2013-09-08
2013-24-0134
Development of computationally fast, numerically robust, and physically accurate models to compute engine-out emissions can play an important role in the design, development, and optimization of automotive engines powered by alternative fuels (such as natural gas and H2) and fuel blends (such as ethanol-blended fuels and biodiesel-blended fuels). Detailed multidimensional models that couple fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics place stringent demands on the computational resources and time, precluding their use in design and parametric studies. This work describes the development of an integrated design tool that couples a fast, robust, physics-based, two-zone quasi-dimensional engine model with modified reaction-rate-controlled models to compute engine-out NO and CO for a wide variety of fuel-additive blends.
Technical Paper

Impact of Transmission Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1082
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
Journal Article

Meeting RFS2 Targets with an E10/E15-like Fuel - Experimental and Analytical Assessment of Higher Alcohols in Multi-component Blends with Gasoline

2013-10-14
2013-01-2612
This paper evaluates the potential of adding higher alcohols to gasoline blendstock in an attempt to improve overall fuel performance. The alcohols considered include ethanol, normal- and iso-structures of propanol, butanol and pentanol as well as normal-hexanol (C2-C6). Fuel performance is quantified based on energy content, knock resistance as well as petroleum displacement and promising multi-component blends are systematically identified based on property prediction methods. These promising multi-component blends, as well as their respective reference fuels, are subsequently tested for efficiency and emissions performance utilizing a gasoline direct injection, spark ignition engine. The engine test results confirm that combustion and efficiency of tailored multi-component blends closely match those of the reference fuels. Regulated emissions stemming from combustion of these blends are equal or lower compared to the reference fuels across the tested engine speed and load regime.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on Morphology of Particulates from a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2574
Detailed characteristics of particulate matter (PM) from a gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of primary and aggregate particle sizes, morphology, and nanostructures. For the work, PM was collected from exhaust streams of the engine on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids by using a thermophoretic sampler. To evaluate the effects of engine load and speed on the properties of PM, the engine was operated at loads of 25, 50, and 75% at 1500 and 3000 rpm. In addition, the effects of fuel injection timing on the PM were examined for samples subjected to injection timings of 190, 230, 260, 300 and 330° bTDC at the constant engine load (50% load) and speed (1500 rpm). The results showed that with advancing injection timing, average primary and aggregate particle sizes gradually increased, which implies that fuel-air mixing is a crucial factor influencing particle size.
Technical Paper

Thin-Film High Voltage Capacitors on Ultra-Thin Glass for Electric Drive Vehicle Inverter Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0417
The propulsion system in most Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) requires an internal combustion engine in combination with an alternating current (AC) electric motor. An electronic device called a power inverter converts battery DC voltage into AC power for the motor. The inverter must be decoupled from the DC source, so a large DC-link capacitor is placed between the battery and the inverter. The DC-link capacitors in these inverters negatively affect the inverters size, weight and assembly cost. To reduce the design/cost impact of the DC-link capacitors, low loss, high dielectric constant (κ) ferroelectric materials are being developed. Ceramic ferroelectrics, such as (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 [PLZT], offer high dielectric constants and high breakdown strength. Argonne National Laboratory and Delphi Electronics & Safety have been developing thin-film capacitors utilizing PLZT.
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