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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Journal Article

Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

2010-10-19
2010-01-2310
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
Journal Article

PHEV Energy Management Strategies at Cold Temperatures with Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement Considerations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0872
Limited battery power and poor engine efficiency at cold temperature results in low plug in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) fuel economy and high emissions. Quick rise of battery temperature is not only important to mitigate lithium plating and thus preserve battery life, but also to increase the battery power limits so as to fully achieve fuel economy savings expected from a PHEV. Likewise, it is also important to raise the engine temperature so as to improve engine efficiency (therefore vehicle fuel economy) and to reduce emissions. One method of increasing the temperature of either component is to maximize their usage at cold temperatures thus increasing cumulative heat generating losses. Since both components supply energy to meet road load demand, maximizing the usage of one component would necessarily mean low usage and slow temperature rise of the other component. Thus, a natural trade-off exists between battery and engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Plug-and-Play Software Architecture to Support Automated Model-Based Control Process

2010-10-05
2010-01-1996
To reduce development time and introduce technologies to the market more quickly, companies are increasingly turning to Model-Based Design. The development process - from requirements capture and design to testing and implementation - centers around a system model. Engineers are skipping over a generation of system design processes based on hand coding and instead are using graphical models to design, analyze, and implement the software that determines machine performance and behavior. This paper describes the process implemented in Autonomie, a plug-and-play software environment, to evaluate a component hardware in an emulated environment. We will discuss best practices and show the process through evaluation of an advanced high-energy battery pack within an emulated plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Developing a Utility Factor for Battery Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1474
As new advanced-technology vehicles are becoming more mainstream, analysts are studying their potential impact on petroleum use, carbon emissions, and smog emissions. Determining the potential impacts of widespread adoption requires testing and careful analysis. PHEVs possess unique operational characteristics that require evaluation in terms of actual in-use driving habits. SAE J2841, “Utility Factor Definitions for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using 2001 U.S. DOT National Household Travel Survey Data,” published by SAE in 2009 with a revision in 2010, is a guide to using DOT's National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data to estimate the relative split between driving in charge-depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode for a particular PHEV with a given CD range. Without this method, direct comparisons of the merits of various vehicle designs (e.g., efficiency and battery size) cannot be made among PHEVs, or between PHEVs and other technologies.
Journal Article

Analysis of Input Power, Energy Availability, and Efficiency during Deceleration for X-EV Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1473
The recovery of braking energy through regenerative braking is a key enabler for the improved efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles (HEV, PHEV, BEV). However, this energy is often treated in a simplified fashion, frequently using an overall regeneration efficiency term, ξrg [1], which is then applied to the total available braking energy of a given drive-cycle. In addition to the ability to recapture braking energy typically lost during vehicle deceleration, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles also allow for reduced or zero engine fueling during vehicle decelerations. While regenerative braking is often discussed as an enabler for improved fuel economy, reduced fueling is also an important component of a hybrid vehicle's ability to improve overall fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

Impact of Electric Drive Vehicle Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1084
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Thin-Film High Voltage Capacitors on Ultra-Thin Glass for Electric Drive Vehicle Inverter Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0417
The propulsion system in most Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) requires an internal combustion engine in combination with an alternating current (AC) electric motor. An electronic device called a power inverter converts battery DC voltage into AC power for the motor. The inverter must be decoupled from the DC source, so a large DC-link capacitor is placed between the battery and the inverter. The DC-link capacitors in these inverters negatively affect the inverters size, weight and assembly cost. To reduce the design/cost impact of the DC-link capacitors, low loss, high dielectric constant (κ) ferroelectric materials are being developed. Ceramic ferroelectrics, such as (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 [PLZT], offer high dielectric constants and high breakdown strength. Argonne National Laboratory and Delphi Electronics & Safety have been developing thin-film capacitors utilizing PLZT.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Based Design Process to Evaluate Advanced Component Technologies

2010-04-12
2010-01-0936
To reduce development time and introduce technologies faster to the market, many companies have been turning more and more to Model Based Design. In Model Based Design, the development process centers around a system model, from requirements capture and design to implementation and test. Engineers can skip over a generation of system design processes on the basis of hand coding and use graphical models to design, analyze, and implement the software that determines machine performance and behavior. This paper describes the process implemented in Autonomie, a Plug-and-Play Software Environment, to design and evaluate component hardware in an emulated environment. We will discuss best practices and provide an example through evaluation of advanced high-energy battery pack within an emulated Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
Technical Paper

Instantaneously Optimized Controller for a Multimode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0816
A multimode transmission combines several power-split modes and possibly several fixed gear modes, thanks to complex arrangements of planetary gearsets, clutches and electric motors. Coupled to a battery, it can be used in a highly flexible hybrid configuration, which is especially practical for larger cars. The Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid is the first light-duty vehicle featuring such a system. This paper introduces the use of a high-level vehicle controller based on instantaneous optimization to select the most appropriate mode for minimizing fuel consumption under a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. The control uses partial optimization: the engine ON/OFF and the battery power demand regulating the battery state-of-charge are decided by a rule-based logic; the transmission mode as well as the operating points are chosen by an instantaneous optimization module that aims at minimizing the fuel consumption at each time step.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Transaxle Synchronization Control Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0817
This paper covers the development of a closed loop transaxle synchronization algorithm which was a key deliverable in the control system design for the L3 Enigma, a Battery Dominant Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Background information is provided to help the reader understand the history that lead to this unique solution of the input and output shaft synchronizing that typically takes place in a manual vehicle transmission or transaxle when shifting into a gear from another or into a gear from neutral when at speed. The algorithm stability is discussed as it applies to system stability and how stability impacts the speed at which a shift can take place. Results are simulated in The MathWorks Simulink programming environment and show how traction motor technology can be used to efficiently solve what is often a machine design issue. The vehicle test bed to which this research is applied is a parallel biodiesel hybrid electric vehicle called the Enigma.
Journal Article

Impact of Energy Management on the NPV Gasoline Savings of PHEVs

2010-04-12
2010-01-1236
This paper evaluates the impact of energy management strategy on the cost benefits of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by taking into account the impact of PHEV energy management on battery life and petroleum displacement over the life of the vehicle. Using Battery in the Loop (BIL), a real battery is subjected to transient power demands by a virtual vehicle. The vehicle energy management strategy is varied, resulting in different battery utilization scenarios. Battery life, which varies with battery utilization, is estimated for the different energy management scenarios. The same representative drive cycle is used over the different energy management strategies to isolate the impact of energy management on battery utilization. PHEV gasoline savings, in comparison to a charge sustaining hybrid, are calculated for each of the energy management strategies, for a fixed distance of 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of SAE DC Charging Digital Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicle DC Charging

2013-04-08
2013-01-1188
This paper outlines the development and progress of implementing the SAE J2931, J2847/2 and J1772 communication standards to accomplish off-board DC charging. Communication between the off-board DC Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) occurs on the pilot wire of the SAE J1772 connector via HomePlug Green PHY power line communication (PLC). An Electric Vehicle Communication Controller (EVCC) was developed to interface with the PEV's Battery Energy Control Module (BECM). A Supply Equipment Communication Controller (SECC) was also developed to interface with the DC EVSE's Power Control Module (PCM). Firmware was developed to implement the SAE J2931/1 communication stack, which is harmonized with the ISO/IEC DIS 15118-2 and DIN 70121 standards for DC charging communication.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

2014-04-01
2014-01-1818
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Journal Article

Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1805
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Ford Focus Battery Electric Vehicle Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-1809
This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
Technical Paper

Development & Integration of a Charge Sustaining Control Strategy for a Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2014-10-13
2014-01-2905
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012-2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption (PEU), WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT is designing, building, and refining an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle.
Technical Paper

Interdependence of System Control and Component Sizing for a Hydrogen-fueled Hybrid Vehicle

2005-09-07
2005-01-3457
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) researchers have embarked on an ambitious program to quantitatively demonstrate the potential of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines (ICEs) in hybrid-electric vehicle applications. In this initiative, ANL researchers need to investigate different hybrid configurations, different levels of hybridization, and different control strategies to evaluate their impacts on the potential of hydrogen ICEs in a hybrid system. Because of limitations in the choice of motor and battery hardware, a common practice is to fix the size of the battery and motor, depending on the hybrid configuration (starter/alternator, mild hybrid, or full hybrid) and to tune the system control for the above-available electrical power/energy. ANL has developed a unique, flexible, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform for advanced powertrain technology evaluation: The Mobile Advanced Technology Testbed (MATT).
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