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The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-11-17
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Approach towards the Self-Correcting Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0579
Open jet wind tunnels are normally tuned to measure “correct” results without any modifications to the raw data. This is an important difference to closed wall wind tunnels, which usually require wind tunnel corrections. The tuning of open jet facilities is typically done experimentally using pilot tunnels and adding final adjustments in the commissioning phase of the full scale tunnel. This approach lacked theoretical background in the past. There is still a common belief outside the small group of people designing and using open jet wind tunnels, that - similar to closed wind tunnels, which generally measure too high aerodynamic forces and moments without correction - open jet wind tunnels measure coefficient too low compared to the real world. The paper will try to show that there is a solid physical foundation underlying the experimental approach and that the expectation to receive self-correcting behavior can be supported by theoretical models.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer at the Underbody of a Production Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-0582
The optimization of the flow field around new vehicle concepts is driven by aerodynamic and thermal demands. Even though aerodynamics and thermodynamics interact, the corresponding design processes are still decoupled. Objective of this study is to include a thermal model into the aerodynamic design process. Thus, thermal concepts can be evaluated at a considerably earlier design stage of new vehicles, resulting in earlier market entry. In a first step, an incompressible CFD code is extended with a passive scalar transport equation for temperature. The next step also accounts for buoyancy effects. The simulated development of the thermal boundary layer is validated on a hot flat plate without pressure gradient. Subsequently, the solvers are validated for a heated block with ground clearance: The flow pattern in the wake and integral heat transfer coefficients are compared to wind tunnel simulations. The main section of this report covers the validation on a full-scale production car.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Simulations with Experiments of Bluff Bodies Including Under-Hood Flow

2011-04-12
2011-01-0171
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is state of the art in the aerodynamic development process of vehicles nowadays. With increasing computer power the numerical simulations including meshing and turbulence modeling are capturing the complex geometry of vehicles and the flow field behavior around and behind a bluff body in more detail. The ultimate goal for realistic automotive simulations is to model the under-hood as well. In this study vehicle simulations using the finite volume open source CFD program OpenFOAM® are validated with own experiments on a modified generic quarter-scale SAE body with under-hood flow. A model radiator was included to take account of the pressure drop in the under-hood compartment. Force and pressure measurements around the car, total-pressure and hot-wire measurements in the car flow field and surface flow patterns were simulated and compared with the experiment.
Journal Article

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-04-12
2011-01-0175
The paper describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The paper illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0763
Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.
Technical Paper

The Ground Simulation Upgrade of the Large Wind Tunnel at the Technische Universität München

2012-04-16
2012-01-0299
The large wind tunnel at the Technische Universität München was upgraded by integrating a modular single-belt system, which enables the simulation of moving ground conditions for ground vehicle testing. Central part of this system is its large belt that moves at a maximum speed of 50 m/s. This belt not only simulates the relative motion between the model vehicle under investigation and the floor, but also drives the model's wheels. Due to its size, the wind tunnel facility is suited for testing 40%-scaled models of typical passenger cars, which are held in place by a newly designed model support system consisting of five struts: One strut to support the body of the model and four struts to hold the model's wheels on top of the moving belt. Another crucial step in upgrading the wind tunnel was to install a boundary layer scoop system to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer approaching the moving belt.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Investigation of Vehicle Cooling-Drag

2012-04-16
2012-01-0170
The interaction between cooling-air and external aerodynamics is known as interference. In a conventional car this interference under the hood results in additional drag. It is estimated that about 10% of the overall aerodynamic drag originates from the cooling air [1] depending on the car shape and cooling configuration. Obviously, cooling drag should be minimized for vehicles with low-drag aerodynamics. In this study cooling-air interference-effects are investigated through experimental, numerical and analytical methods with a focus on the surface pressure of the vehicle. The surface pressure of vehicles with and without interference effects is compared. Observations show that when the cooling-air inlet is opened a pressure rise occurs around the inlet, while a pressure drop appears around the outlet. This phenomenon was investigated for several vehicle shapes including a simplified bluff-body (SAE-Body) and a close-to-real quarter-scale model (aeromodel).
Technical Paper

Predicting Overall Seating Discomfort Based on Body Area Ratings

2007-04-16
2007-01-0346
For car manufacturers, seating comfort is becoming more and more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. There is a simultaneous demand for shorter development times and more comfortable seats. Comfort in automobile seats is a multi-dimensional and complex problem. Many current sophisticated measuring tools were consulted, but it is unclear on which factors one should concentrate attention when measuring comfort. The goal of this paper is to find a model in order to predict the overall seating discomfort based on body area ratings. Besides micro climate, the pressure distribution appears to be the most objective measure comprising with the clearest association with the subjective ratings. Therefore an analysis with three different test series was designed, allowing the variation of pressure on the seat surface. In parallel the subjects were asked to judge the local and the overall sensation.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

2007-05-15
2007-01-2388
The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Technical Paper

Process Modeling in the Life Cycle Design - Environmental Modeling of Joining Technologies within the Automotive Industry -

1998-11-30
982190
For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Compaction Processes of Friction Material Mixes

2002-10-06
2002-01-2594
In the production of brake disc pads, powder mixes containing, metal chips, filling agents, and abrasive materials, as well as phenolic resins are processed and molded to a back plate by way of pressure and temperature. These molded disc pads reach their final strength through additional thermal treatment such that the phenolic resins approach “full cure”. This production process leads to anisotropic, viscoelastic, and to a certain extent heterogeneous materials which are - like the brake system- increasingly subject to even greater demands. E.g. apart from tribological characteristics, more and more focus is placed on structure-mechanical properties to improve the braking comfort.
Technical Paper

Studies on Enhanced CVS Technology to Achieve SULEV Certification

2002-03-04
2002-01-0048
For the measurement of exhaust emissions, Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) technology is recommended by legislation and has proven its practical capability in the past. However, the introduction of new low emission standards has raised questions regarding the accuracy and variability of the CVS system when measuring very low emission levels. This paper will show that CVS has the potential to achieve sufficient precision for certification of SULEV concepts. Thus, there is no need for the introduction of new test methods involving high cost. An analysis of the CVS basic equations indicates the importance of the Dilution Factor (DF) for calculating true mass emissions. A test series will demonstrate that, by adjusting the dilution and using state of the art analyzers, the consistency of exhaust results is comparable with those of LEV concepts, measured with conventional CVS systems and former standard analyzers.
Journal Article

Fast Crank-Angle Based 0D Simulation of Combustion Engine Cold Tests including Manufacturing Faults and Production Spread

2016-04-05
2016-01-1374
During series production of modern combustion engines a major challenge is to ensure the correct operation of every engine part. A common method is to test engines in end-of-line (EOL) cold test stations, where the engines are not fired but tugged by an electric motor. In this work we present a physically based 0D model for dynamic simulation of combustion engines under EOL test conditions. Our goals are the analysis of manufacturing faults regarding their detectability and the enhancement of test procedures under varying environmental conditions. Physical experiments are prohibitive in production environments, and the simulative approach reduces them to a minimum. This model is the first known to the authors exploring advanced engine test methods under production conditions. The model supports a wide range of manufacturing faults (with adjustable magnitude) as well as error-free production spread in engine components.
Technical Paper

Application of the Adjoint Method for Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1615
The aerodynamic optimization of an AUDI Q5 vehicle is presented using the continuous adjoint approach within the OpenFOAM framework. All calculations are performed on an unstructured automatically generated mesh. The primal flow, which serves as input for the adjoint method, is calculated using the standard CFD process at AUDI. It is based on DES calculations using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The transient results of the primal solution are time averaged and fed to a stationary adjoint solver using a frozen turbulence assumption. From the adjoint model, drag sensitivity maps are computed and measures for drag reduction are derived. The predicted measures are compared to CFD simulations and to wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 model scale. In this context, general challenges, such as convergence and accuracy of the adjoint method are discussed and best practice guidelines are demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Pulsations and their Active Suppression

2000-03-06
2000-01-0869
Low-frequency pressure fluctuations which occur at certain flow speeds are an undesired feature in many open jet wind tunnels. This so called ‘wind tunnel pumping’ affects the aerodynamic quality of the flow and thus the quality of the measured data. In this paper a novel approach is presented to control the pulsation phenomenon by active damping of the acoustic resonant modes of the wind tunnel circuit. The acoustic mechanism of the resonance effect was investigated using a 1/20 scale pilot wind tunnel with a complete and detailed representation of test section, ducting, turning vanes and fan. The newly devised Active Resonance Control (ARC) System essentially consists of a microphone which picks up the pressure fluctuations in the plenum, a loudspeaker which is mounted in the tunnel wall and a time delay to adjust the phase relation between the microphone signal and the loudspeaker output.
Technical Paper

Rotating Wheels - Their Impact on Wind Tunnel Test Techniques and on Vehicle Drag Results

1997-02-24
970133
The question of the proper simulation of wheel rotation has not so far been a major concern. Within the scope of an examination of the influence of wheels and tyres on aerodynamic drag it will be shown that their contribution to the overall drag value - whether they are rotating or not - is of about the same magnitude as the proportion of the rough underbody. Therefore the question of the importance of the simulation of wheel rotation is posed. This paper discusses how a measurement with a better simulation can look like and what the major changes in the flow field are. In particular a new physical quantity, which has to be determined, the so-called “fan moment” is introduced. . The problems that arise in the determination of the fan moment of the wheels and hence in the required isolation of the rolling resistance, are described in detail. This is done for a test set up with full width moving belt and measurement via internal balance and sting support.
Technical Paper

Influence Parameters on Headlamp Performance in Rating Systems and Reality

2017-03-28
2017-01-1359
Headlamp performance has changed in the last 20 years significantly. Sealed beam lamps were replaced by VHAD, VOR and VOL types, but still the optical input in terms of tungsten filament based luminous flux remained more stable. With Xenon discharge lamps and now LED the performance of a headlamp may vary strongly and thus the optical performance. Various rating systems have been developed to assess the quality of lamps and light distribution, some based on laboratory based data, some based on static or dynamic street test drives with online measurements and assessments. Basic interest is to understand the performance of the light for a real driver. This article will discuss the influence parameters on achieving a repeatable and precise rating as well as the outer influence that creates glare and varying seeing distance. Mostly mechanical headlamp and car conditioning will influence the result as well as human factors like aiming precision and aiming tolerances.
Journal Article

Brake Particle Emission Measurements - Testing Method and Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-0996
Brake Particle Emission (BPE) is gaining considerable importance for the friction brake and automotive industry. So far no common approach or legislation for BPE characterization exists although many activities in this field have been started during the last years. Taking this into account, the authors carried out a joint measurement campaign to investigate a new approach regarding the sampling location using a brake dynamometer. During preliminary investigations the influence of the cooling air quality has been examined and a sampling point position validation has been carried out. At first the stabilization behavior for repeated test cycles and variations of volumetric air flow rates are analyzed. As a next step the role of volatile particle emissions is determined. Subsequently, the influence of load history and friction power is studied. Finally results in terms of the role of high temperature applications are presented.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Engineering Methods in Heavy-Vehicle Aerodynamics

2017-08-25
2017-01-7001
The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
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