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Technical Paper

Design / Analysis and Development of Cylinder Head for High Performance 3 Cylinder CRDi Euro-V Diesel Engine for a High Combustion Pressure of 200 Bar

This work is a part of program on “Development of High Performance DI, 3 Cylinder CRDI Diesel Engine to meet Euro-IV/V Emission Norms focused on automotive passenger car application purpose. This is a 3 Cylinder, TCIC engine designed for combustion pressure of 160 bar max for first stage which is being upgraded to 200 bar max in the second stage. Cylinder Head design is a part of complicated configuration whose construction and principal dimensions are dependent on the size of inlet and exhaust valves, fuel injectors positioning and mounting, port layout and swirl and shape of combustion chambers. The cylinder head of a direct-injection diesel engine has to perform many functions. It has to bring charge air to the cylinder and exhaust gas from the cylinder, with minimum pumping loss and required swirl and other properties of charge motion.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Radiator Fan for Automotive Application

A methodology for design and development of radiator cooling fan is developed with an objective to improve underhood thermal management. For this purpose an Axial Fan Design Software has been developed which is based on Arbitrary Vortex Flow theory. The software is useful for obtaining initial blade design for the given basic functional requirements in terms of Airflow, Pressure Rise and Speed which defines the operating point of the fan. CFD analysis of the initial fan design is then carried out to predict the fan performance curve. Computation model resembles a fan set up in a wind tunnel. Further, Parametric Optimization is carried out using CFD to meet the functional requirements. A Rapid Prototype sample of the optimized fan design is manufactured and tested in a fan test rig made as per AMCA 210-99 standard to evaluate the fan performance curve and the power consumption.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Thermal Comfort Inside a Midibus Passenger Cabin Using CFD and Its Experimental Validation

This paper presents a methodology for predicting thermal comfort inside Midibus cabin with an objective to modify the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) duct design and parametric optimization in order to have improved thermal comfort of occupant. For this purpose the bus cavity is extracted from baseline CAD model including fully seated manikins with various seating positions. Solar Load has been considered in the computational model and passenger heat load is considered as per BSR/ASHRAE 55-1992R standard. CFD simulation predicted the air temperature and velocity distribution inside passenger cabin of the baseline model. The experimental measurements have been carried out as per the guidelines set in APTA-BT-RP-003-07 standard. The results obtained from CFD and Experimental test were analysed as per EVS EN ISO7730 standard and calculated occupant comfort in terms of thermal comfort parameters like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD).
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Optimization from Design to Experimentation

Virtual modeling of engine and predicting the performance and emissions is now becoming an essential step in engine development for off-road application due to the flexibility in tuning of the combustion parameters and requirement of shorter development times. This paper presents an approach where the test bed calibration time is reduced using virtual techniques, such as 1D thermodynamic simulation and 3D CFD combustion simulation for 4 cylinders TCIC engine complying with Stage IIIA emission norms. 1D thermodynamic simulation has played an important role in the early stage development of an engine for selection of engine sub systems like turbocharger, manifolds, EGR system, valve timings etc. The application of 1D Simulation tool for combustion system development, focusing on NOx emissions for an off road multicylinder mechanical injection diesel engine is discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization in Tube Yoke Forging Process using Computer Simulation

New process development of forging component requires in-depth knowledge and experience related to the process. Also it requires number of physical trials to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. With the help of reliable computer simulation tool, it is possible to optimize the complete forging process and billet dimensions. Simulation provides much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. This saves considerable time and money. This paper describes about a complete forging process designed for a complex component. With the help of metal forming simulation software, complete forging process was simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Billet weight optimization was also carried out. Deciding the preforming shape of the billet was the main challenge. An innovative pre-forging shape was arrived which resulted in eliminating one process stage.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Enclosure Optimization for a Higher Capacity Diesel Generator Set Using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) Based Approach

Diesel powered electric generators are used in a variety of applications, such as emergency back-up power, temporary primary power at industrial facilities, etc. As regulatory and customer requirements demand quieter designs, special attention is given to the design of acoustic enclosures to balance the need of noise control with other performance criteria like ventilation and physical protection. In the present work, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach augmented by experimental inputs is used to carry out Vibro-acoustic analysis of an enclosure for higher capacity Diesel generator set. The exterior sound radiated from an enclosed generator is predicted and further enclosure is optimized for an improved sound-suppression. The airborne sources such as engine, alternator, radiator fan and exhaust are modelled explicitly using experimental noise source characterization. Structure borne inputs are also captured in the test for improving modelling accuracy.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM.