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Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Abstract Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling in Engine Development Part I: Verification of Concept

2015-04-14
2015-01-0341
Abstract This paper introduces an innovative approach, named synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling, by using synergy effects of 1D and 3D simulation in order to bring down modeling and simulation efforts. At the same time the methodology sustains the spatial resolution of a 3D model. This goal is reached by reducing the 3D fluid side with its time consuming continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations to a simple but precise 1D model. Because of the solid structure staying three dimensional, heat flux direction and spatial resolution have 3D accuracy but short calculation times due to the simple heat diffusion equation to be solved. The 1D model is represented by an automatically generated equation system which is capable of considering transient effects. The energy transfer between 1D fluid model and 3D structure model is realized through a neutral 1D-3D-coupling program and the application of the fluid element specific Nusselt correlations.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

2015-04-14
2015-01-0266
Abstract The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
Journal Article

Bridging the Gap between Open Loop Tests and Statistical Validation for Highly Automated Driving

2017-03-28
2017-01-1403
Abstract Highly automated driving (HAD) is under rapid development and will be available for customers within the next years. However the evidence that HAD is at least as safe as human driving has still not been produced. The challenge is to drive hundreds of millions of test kilometers without incidents to show that statistically HAD is significantly safer. One approach is to let a HAD function run in parallel with human drivers in customer cars to utilize a fraction of the billions of kilometers driven every year. To guarantee safety, the function under test (FUT) has access to sensors but its output is not executed, which results in an open loop problem. To overcome this shortcoming, the proposed method consists of four steps to close the loop for the FUT. First, sensor data from real driving scenarios is fused in a world model and enhanced by incorporating future time steps into original measurements.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1224
Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Journal Article

Timing Evaluation in E/E Architecture Design at BMW

2014-04-01
2014-01-0317
Timing evaluation methods help to design a robust and extendible E/E architecture (electric/electronic). BMW has introduced the systematic application of such methods in the E/E design process within the last three years. Meanwhile, most of the architectural changes are now verified by a tool-based, automatic real-time analysis. This has increased the accuracy of the network planning and productivity of the BMW network department. In this paper, we give an overview of the actual status of timing evaluations in BMW's E/E architecture design. We discuss acceptance criteria, analysis metrics, and design rules, as far as these are related to timing. We look specifically at automation options, as these improve the productivity further. We will see that timing analysis has matured and should be mandatory for application in mass production E/E architecture development. At the same time, there is room for future improvements.
Technical Paper

The New BMW Climatic Testing Complex - The Energy and Environment Test Centre

2011-04-12
2011-01-0167
The Energy and Environment Test Centre (EVZ) is a complex comprising three large climatic wind tunnels, two smaller test chambers, nine soak rooms and support infrastructure. The capabilities of the wind tunnels and chambers are varied, and as a whole give BMW the ability to test at practically all conditions experienced by their vehicles, worldwide. The three wind tunnels have been designed for differing test capabilities, but share the same air circuit design, which has been optimized for energy consumption yet is compact for its large, 8.4 m₂, nozzle cross-section. The wind tunnel test section was designed to meet demanding aerodynamic specifications, including a limit on the axial static pressure gradient and low frequency static pressure fluctuations - design parameters previously reserved for larger aerodynamic or aero-acoustic wind tunnels. The aerodynamic design was achieved, in-part, by use of computational fluid dynamics and a purpose-built model wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

The BMW AVZ Wind Tunnel Center

2010-04-12
2010-01-0118
The new BMW Aerodynamisches Versuchszentrum (AVZ) wind tunnel center includes a full-scale wind tunnel, "The BMW Windkanal" and an aerodynamic laboratory "The BMW AEROLAB." The AVZ facility incorporates numerous new technology features that provide design engineers with new tools for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles. The AVZ features a single-belt rolling road in the AEROLAB and a five-belt rolling road in the Windkanal for underbody aerodynamic simulation. Each of these rolling road types has distinct advantages, and BMW will leverage the advantages of each system. The AEROLAB features two overhead traverses that can be configured to study vehicle drafting, and both static and dynamic passing maneuvers. To accurately simulate "on-road" aerodynamic forces, a novel collector/flow stabilizer was developed that produces a very flat axial static pressure distribution. The flat static pressure distribution represents a significant improvement relative to other open jet wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Extraction of Static Car Body Stiffness from Dynamic Measurements

2010-04-12
2010-01-0228
This paper describes a practical approach to extract the global static stiffness of a body in white (BIW) from dynamic measurements in free-free conditions. Based on a limited set of measured frequency response functions (FRF), the torsional and bending stiffness values are calculated using an FRF based substructuring approach in combination with inverse force identification. A second approach consists of a modal approach whereby the static car body stiffness is deduced from a full free-free modal identification including residual stiffness estimation at the clamping and load positions. As an extra important result this approach allows for evaluating the modal contribution of the flexible car body modes to the global static stiffness values. The methods have been extensively investigated using finite element modeling data and verified on a series of body in white measurements.
Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

2012-06-13
2012-01-1548
Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Technical Paper

Li-Ion Battery SOC Estimation Using Non-Linear Estimation Strategies Based on Equivalent Circuit Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1849
Abstract Due to their high energy density, power density, and durability, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rapidly becoming the most popular energy storage method for electric vehicles. Difficulty arises in accurately estimating the amount of left capacity in the battery during operation time, commonly known as battery state of charge (SOC). This paper presents a comparative study between six different Equivalent Circuit Li-ion battery models and two different state of charge (SOC) estimation strategies. The Battery models cover the state-of-the-art of Equivalent Circuit models discussed in literature. The Li-ion battery SOC is estimated using non-linear estimation strategies i.e. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF). The models and the state of charge estimation strategies are compared against simulation data obtained from AVL CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

Title: Development of Reusable Body and Comfort Software Functions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1403
The potential to reduce the cost of embedded software by standardizing the application behavior for Automotive Body and Comfort domain functions is explored in this paper. AUTOSAR, with its layered architecture and a standard definition of the interfaces for Body and Comfort application functions, has simplified the exchangeability of software components. A further step is to standardize the application behavior, by developing standard specifications for common Body and Comfort functions. The corresponding software components can be freely exchanged between different OEM/Tier-1 users, even if developed independently by multiple suppliers. In practice, individual OEM users may need to maintain some distinction in the functionality. A method of categorizing the specifications as ‘common’ and ‘unique’, and to configure them for individual applications is proposed. This allows feature variability by means of relatively simple adapter functions.
Journal Article

Achieving a Scalable E/E-Architecture Using AUTOSAR and Virtualization

2013-04-08
2013-01-1399
Today's automotive software integration is a static process. Hardware and software form a fixed package and thus hinder the integration of new electric and electronic features once the specification has been completed. Usually software components assigned to an ECU cannot be easily transferred to other devices after they have been deployed. The main reasons are high system configuration and integration complexity, although shifting functions from one to another ECU is a feature which is generally supported by AUTOSAR. The concept of a Virtual Functional Bus allows a strict separation between applications and infrastructure and avoids source code modifications. But still further tooling is needed to reconfigure the AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW). Other challenges for AUTOSAR are mixed integrity, versioning and multi-core support. The upcoming BMW E/E-domain oriented architecture will require all these features to be scalable across all vehicle model ranges.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Process Parameters for Automotive Paint Application

2011-10-06
2011-28-0072
The quality of the paint application in automotive industry depends on several process parameters. Thus, finding an optimal solution based on experimental configuration is tedious and time consuming. A first step to reduce the effort is to model the application within the framework of a simulation environment. In this study, we present an approach for the systematic variation of design parameters of the paint process to quantify their influence on the quality of the paint application. Using that information the design space is reduced by neglecting the parameters with low impact and later used to predict an optimal set of input parameters for an optimal paint application.
Journal Article

Possible Influences on Fuel Consumption Calculations while using the Hydrogen-Balance Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-1037
The Hydrogen-Balance equation makes it possible to calculate the fuel economy or fuel consumption of hydrogen powered vehicles simply by analyzing exhaust emissions. While the benefits of such a method are apparent, it is important to discuss possible influencing factors that may decrease Hydrogen-Balance accuracy. Measuring vehicle exhaust emissions is done with a CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system. While the CVS system has proven itself both robust and precise over the years, utilizing it for hydrogen applications requires extra caution to retain measurement accuracy. Consideration should be given to all testing equipment, as well as the vehicle being tested. Certain environmental factors may also play a role not just in Hydrogen-Balance accuracy, but as also in other low emission testing accuracy.
Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1036
Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Technical Paper

Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems Developed and Manufactured for the First Time for Customer Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-0432
There is a common understanding that hydrogen has a great potential to be the fuel of the future. In addition to the challenge of developing appropriate hydrogen propulsion systems the development of hydrogen storage systems is the second big issue. Due to its high potential in cost and weight and specific storage capacity, the BMW Group is focusing on the development of liquid hydrogen storage systems. In the next hydrogen 7-Series the BMW Group is about to make for the first time the step from demonstration fleets to cars used by external users with a liquid hydrogen storage system. To realize this significant goal, special focus has to be put on high safety standards so that hydrogen can be considered as safe as common types of fuel, and on the every day reliability of the storage system. Moreover, the development of strong partnerships with suppliers is a key factor to realize the design and identify appropriate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

The New 12-Cylinder Hydrogen Engine in the 7 Series: The H2 ICE Age Has Begun

2006-04-03
2006-01-0431
Due to its high specific power density, immediate and lively throttle response, good efficiency and life cycles comparable to current powertrain concepts the hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2-ICE) will play a major role in future automotive propulsion systems. The new bi-fuel 12-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine for the 7 series is an important step in this direction. In this article engine design and the development of the engine functions of the new H2-12-cylinder will be shown in detail. In particular the engine operation strategy to achieve high efficiencies and very low tail pipe emissions will be presented. Finally potentials of the mono-fuel derivative will be discussed and an outlook for future engine concepts will be given.
Technical Paper

How to Achieve Functional Safety and What Safety Standards and Risk Assessment Can Contribute

2004-03-08
2004-01-1662
In this contribution functional safety is discussed from a car manufacturer's point of view. Typical elements of a safety standard concerning safety activities during the product development process are described as well as management and other supporting processes. Emphasis is laid on the aspect of risk assessment and the determination of safety classes. Experiences with methods for safety analysis like FTA or FMEA are discussed and pros and cons of quantitative safety assessment are argued.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1262
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
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