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BMW Technology/Strategy Regarding EV

2011-11-04
The BMW Group has introduced electric cars to the market with the MINI E already in 2009. The next step will be the launch of the BMW ActiveE in 2011, followed by the revolutionary Mega City Vehicle in 2013. The presentation will explain the BMW Group strategy for implementing sustainable mobility. A focus will be emobility, the use of carbon fiber and the holistic sustainability approach of BMW Group?s project i. Reference will be made to the research results of the MINI E projects in the US and in Europe. Presenter Andreas Klugescheid, BMW AG
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0547
For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

Prospects and Aspects of an Integrated Chassis Management ICM

2000-03-06
2000-01-0105
Integrated Chassis Management ICM is a novel and demanding approach to develop a vehicle chassis and all its control systems in a common process which explicitly addresses the interrelations between them. Primary aims are the improvement of driving safety and comfort by creating synergies in the use of sensor information, hardware, and control strategies. The Electronic Brake Management EBM is an essential part of ICM and an important step to its development.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Statistical-Based Test Environment for Transmission Control Unit of Passenger Cars

1999-03-01
1999-01-1047
During the development of a software system, such as automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars, the developer must check how the system satisfies the requirements from the customers perspective. At the customer side, reliability and correctness are the most important factors in terms of the product quality. In order to achieve a certain degree of these quality factors, the adequate development methods or standards must be applied during the whole development process of the product. Testing is the most important activity of the development process to assess the product reliability and correctness. In this paper the real-time statistical-based test environment is presented. The objective is to assess the quality of automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars in its intended environment applying a usage profile.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

1999-05-17
1999-01-1665
Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Forces on Comfort Feeling in Vehicles

2000-06-06
2000-01-2171
When investigating the posture comfort in vehicles two important influencing factors can be distinguished: In order to evaluate these influences a combined laboratory-field-experiment was carried out. A real car was equipped with cameras to record the body posture and the joint angles. The static forces exerted by the driver on his contact points were recorded in a corresponding mock-up. The forces to maintain the body posture were calculated. The following results were found:
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

Powder Clear Coat -- A Quantum Leap in Automotive Paint Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1359
BMW - the driving force for progress As we approach the new millenium, to ensure the continuation of the progress into the future, BMW uses leading edge approaches in its materials research and processing. Overview production sites all over the world - Plant Dingolfing Quality requirements for automobile painting The complex and wide-ranging demands that the outer skin of an automobile has to meet offered us the chance to advance with a technological leap from liquid clear coat to the potentials of powder clear coat. The new clear coat technology The clear coat creates the ultimate gloss effect - and powder-based clear coat makes the surface of the car even more brilliant. To achieve this effect the body is covered by microscopically small paint particles. A pioneer achievement A lot of challenges in both material development and systems-engineering had to be made. The automotive world was watching, many experts said it could not be successfully used as an OEM clear coat.
Technical Paper

Communication and Information Systems - A Comparison of Ideas, Concepts and Products

2000-03-06
2000-01-0810
How can car manufacturers, which are primary mechanical engineers, become software specialists? This is a question of prime importance for car electronics in the future. Modern vehicles offer a large number of electronic and software based functions to achieve a high level of safety, fuel economy, comfort, entertainment and security which are developed under pressure of regulations, of consumers needs and of competitive time to market aspects. This contribution draws a picture, what could be important in future for in car communication and information system in terms of development process, HW & SW architectures, partnerships in automotive industry and security of industrial properties. For this purpose the automotive development is reviewed and actual examples of system designs are given.
Technical Paper

The Development of a BMW Catalyst Concept for LEV/EU3 Legislation for a 8 Cylinder Engine by Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-03-01
1999-01-0767
For the BMW V8 engine, a new LEV/EU3 emission concept has been developed by improvements to the previous engine management and secondary air supply and a complete new exhaust system. Beside the emission limits, also high engine output targets and high operating reliability were targeted. In addition the new exhaust system had to meet low cost targets. Based on these requirements an exhaust concept with separate pre catalyst and main catalyst was chosen. To reduce the heat mass and to optimize the pressure drop, 4.3mil/400cpsi thin wall ceramic substrates were used for the pre and main catalyst.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1528
A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Automotive Defroster and Windshield Flow

2001-10-01
2001-01-3441
The specification of automotive ventilation / defrosting systems has often utilized “trial-and-error” and “prior experience” techniques. But design development and production efficiency has generated a strong interest in using more sophisticated design tools such as computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose a joint experimental and numerical study was undertaken. This comprehensive investigation was divided into two parts. First, the three dimensional defroster flow field was measured using LDA in an actual automobile. Second, LDA and infrared thermography was used to map the flow and temperature fields for a two dimensional jet impinging upon a slanted plate -- a simplified representation of a car defroster geometry.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0676
BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola and Philips present their joint development activity related to the FlexRay communication system that is intended for distributed applications in vehicles. The designated applications for powertrain and chassis control place requirements in terms of availability, reliability and data bandwidth that cannot be met by any product currently available on the market under the testing conditions encountered in an automobile. A short look back on events so far is followed by a description of the protocol and its first implementation as an integrated circuit, as well as its incorporation into a complete tool environment.
Technical Paper

Software tools and methods for the practice-oriented PDM integration of design and diagnostics of mechatronic systems in vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0114
a practice-oriented approach for an accelerated product development and product design process for mechatronic systems is presented. The handling of complex and versatile product data to perform this process is shown in the area of electrical drives and actuators in cars. It is discussed, how the coordination of all the necessary disciplines as development, design, testing field, specification and release management should be software supported and PDM integrated. The advantages and benefits of the presented methods are shown on particular examples. The necessary software modules are introduced, showing that the realized solution gives both opportunities - the integration into a PDM backbone and at the same time an independent communication within department and/or company. The practical way, to realize the expert-specific needs of the development department, which is not possible with a general PDM system is pointed out.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

Studies on Enhanced CVS Technology to Achieve SULEV Certification

2002-03-04
2002-01-0048
For the measurement of exhaust emissions, Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) technology is recommended by legislation and has proven its practical capability in the past. However, the introduction of new low emission standards has raised questions regarding the accuracy and variability of the CVS system when measuring very low emission levels. This paper will show that CVS has the potential to achieve sufficient precision for certification of SULEV concepts. Thus, there is no need for the introduction of new test methods involving high cost. An analysis of the CVS basic equations indicates the importance of the Dilution Factor (DF) for calculating true mass emissions. A test series will demonstrate that, by adjusting the dilution and using state of the art analyzers, the consistency of exhaust results is comparable with those of LEV concepts, measured with conventional CVS systems and former standard analyzers.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lighting Simulation (ALS) for the Evaluation of the BMW System Adaptive Light Control (ALC)

2002-07-09
2002-01-1988
The Advanced Lighting Simulation (ALS) is a development tool for systematically investigating and optimizing the Adaptive Light Control (ALC) system to provide the driver with improved headlamps and light distributions. ALS is based on advanced CA-techniques and modern validation facilities. To improve night time traffic safety the BMW lighting system ALC has been developed and optimized with the help of ALS. ALC improves the headlamp illumination by means of continuous adaptation of the headlamps according to the current driving situation and current environment. BMW has already implemented ALC prototypes in real vehicles to demonstrate the advantages on the real road.
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