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Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems Developed and Manufactured for the First Time for Customer Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-0432
There is a common understanding that hydrogen has a great potential to be the fuel of the future. In addition to the challenge of developing appropriate hydrogen propulsion systems the development of hydrogen storage systems is the second big issue. Due to its high potential in cost and weight and specific storage capacity, the BMW Group is focusing on the development of liquid hydrogen storage systems. In the next hydrogen 7-Series the BMW Group is about to make for the first time the step from demonstration fleets to cars used by external users with a liquid hydrogen storage system. To realize this significant goal, special focus has to be put on high safety standards so that hydrogen can be considered as safe as common types of fuel, and on the every day reliability of the storage system. Moreover, the development of strong partnerships with suppliers is a key factor to realize the design and identify appropriate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

The New 12-Cylinder Hydrogen Engine in the 7 Series: The H2 ICE Age Has Begun

2006-04-03
2006-01-0431
Due to its high specific power density, immediate and lively throttle response, good efficiency and life cycles comparable to current powertrain concepts the hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2-ICE) will play a major role in future automotive propulsion systems. The new bi-fuel 12-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine for the 7 series is an important step in this direction. In this article engine design and the development of the engine functions of the new H2-12-cylinder will be shown in detail. In particular the engine operation strategy to achieve high efficiencies and very low tail pipe emissions will be presented. Finally potentials of the mono-fuel derivative will be discussed and an outlook for future engine concepts will be given.
Journal Article

Hydrogen Fuel Consumption Correlation between Established EPA Measurement Methods and Exhaust Emissions Measurements

2008-04-14
2008-01-1038
The development of hydrogen-fueled vehicles has created the need for established fuel consumption testing methods. Until now the EPA has only accepted three methods of hydrogen fuel consumption testing, gravimetric, PVT (stabilized pressure, volume and temperature), and Coriolis mass flow; all of which necessitate physical measurements of the fuel supply [1]. BMW has developed an equation and subsequent testing methods to accurately and effectively determine hydrogen fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles using only exhaust emissions. Known as “Hydrogen-Balance”, the new equation requires no changes to EPA procedures and only slight modifications to most existing chassis dynamometers and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems. The SAE 2008-01-1036, also written by BMW, explains the background as well as required equipment and changes to the CVS testing system. This paper takes hydrogen balance further by testing it against the three EPA established forms of fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1036
Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Journal Article

Possible Influences on Fuel Consumption Calculations while using the Hydrogen-Balance Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-1037
The Hydrogen-Balance equation makes it possible to calculate the fuel economy or fuel consumption of hydrogen powered vehicles simply by analyzing exhaust emissions. While the benefits of such a method are apparent, it is important to discuss possible influencing factors that may decrease Hydrogen-Balance accuracy. Measuring vehicle exhaust emissions is done with a CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system. While the CVS system has proven itself both robust and precise over the years, utilizing it for hydrogen applications requires extra caution to retain measurement accuracy. Consideration should be given to all testing equipment, as well as the vehicle being tested. Certain environmental factors may also play a role not just in Hydrogen-Balance accuracy, but as also in other low emission testing accuracy.
Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

1998-02-23
980418
To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

1998-10-19
982438
The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1262
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

HC Measurements by Means of Flame Ionization: Background and Limits of Low Emission Measurement

2003-03-03
2003-01-0387
Flame Ionization Detectors (FID) can be used to detect organic hydrocarbons that occur in plastics, lacquers, adhesives, solvents and gasoline. These substances are ionized in the hydrogen flame of the FID. The ionization current that is produced depends on the amount of hydrocarbon in the sample. With the lowering of emissions limits, measuring instruments, including the FID, have to be able to detect very low values. For SULEV (Super-Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) measurements the accuracy and also the general applicability of the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) measuring technique are now questioned. Basic understanding is necessary to ask the right questions. One important issue is the science behind the measurement principle of the FID. And in this case especially the influence of contamination of the operating gases, cross sensitivity and data processing on the Limit of Detection (LOD).
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0624
A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

1999-05-17
1999-01-1665
Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0676
BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola and Philips present their joint development activity related to the FlexRay communication system that is intended for distributed applications in vehicles. The designated applications for powertrain and chassis control place requirements in terms of availability, reliability and data bandwidth that cannot be met by any product currently available on the market under the testing conditions encountered in an automobile. A short look back on events so far is followed by a description of the protocol and its first implementation as an integrated circuit, as well as its incorporation into a complete tool environment.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Statistical-Based Test Environment for Transmission Control Unit of Passenger Cars

1999-03-01
1999-01-1047
During the development of a software system, such as automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars, the developer must check how the system satisfies the requirements from the customers perspective. At the customer side, reliability and correctness are the most important factors in terms of the product quality. In order to achieve a certain degree of these quality factors, the adequate development methods or standards must be applied during the whole development process of the product. Testing is the most important activity of the development process to assess the product reliability and correctness. In this paper the real-time statistical-based test environment is presented. The objective is to assess the quality of automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars in its intended environment applying a usage profile.
Technical Paper

The Development of a BMW Catalyst Concept for LEV/EU3 Legislation for a 8 Cylinder Engine by Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-03-01
1999-01-0767
For the BMW V8 engine, a new LEV/EU3 emission concept has been developed by improvements to the previous engine management and secondary air supply and a complete new exhaust system. Beside the emission limits, also high engine output targets and high operating reliability were targeted. In addition the new exhaust system had to meet low cost targets. Based on these requirements an exhaust concept with separate pre catalyst and main catalyst was chosen. To reduce the heat mass and to optimize the pressure drop, 4.3mil/400cpsi thin wall ceramic substrates were used for the pre and main catalyst.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0547
For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
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