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Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

2012-06-13
2012-01-1548
Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Virtual testing driven development process for side impact safety

2001-06-04
2001-06-0251
A new simulation tool was established and approved by TRW as part of the continuous improvement of the development process. This tool allows the OEM and the system supplier to keep high quality even with further reduced development times. The introduction of the tool in a side air-bag development program makes it possible to ensure high development confidence with a reduced number of vehicle crash tests and late availability of interior component parts.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1528
A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Testing Automotive Systems Modeled by Finite State Machines

1994-03-01
940136
The use of micro controllers in automotive systems renders the coordination of about 150 actors (70 electric motors, 15 magnetic valves and 50 relays). The resulting complexity of those systems as well as the requested zero defects demands time consuming testing. This work describes a method of performing test-scenarios, starting from a zero defect running specification, modeled by finite state machines. The test-scenarios are intended to determine whether a given system meets all specification requirements. First, a kind of structured modelling reactive automotive systems is deduced. Next, some important test selection methods, developed for the case the specification is given in the form of a finite state machine, are considered. Finally, a procedure and method for performing minimized complete test-scenarios for automotive systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Material Choice and Design of Automotive Plastic Parts Under the Aspects of Recycling

1995-10-01
951847
A lot of very valuable information has already been gained in the process of dismantling, assorting and reconditioning plastic parts on old cars, in reconditioning defective plastic parts from workshops, and in the use of reject parts from production. This know-how is now applied primarily to increase the use of recycled plastics and to optimise the composition and design of future plastic components in the interest of recycling, since further development in these areas is essential in order to establish economically stable material cycles functioning properly in the long term. The present paper describes the most important criteria through which the materials and designs chosen affect the processes and principles of recycling in the case of plastic parts and components.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

2018-06-13
2018-01-1507
Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Data Reduction in Automotive Multiplex Systems

1994-03-01
940135
Increasing demand for utilities like navigation systems or user-defined electronic phonebooks on one hand and sophisticated engine and gear controls on the other hand leads to growing bus load between distributed local control units. This paper shows the benefits and the characteristics of various state of the art data-compression algorithms and their impact on typical automotive multiplex dataclasses. The evaluation and optimization of promising algorithms can be done via a proposed “communications prototyping”-approach. The hardware/software components of such a rapid prototyping package are outlined. Finally, first performance results of suitable data-compression measures are presented.
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