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Video

BMW Technology/Strategy Regarding EV

2011-11-04
The BMW Group has introduced electric cars to the market with the MINI E already in 2009. The next step will be the launch of the BMW ActiveE in 2011, followed by the revolutionary Mega City Vehicle in 2013. The presentation will explain the BMW Group strategy for implementing sustainable mobility. A focus will be emobility, the use of carbon fiber and the holistic sustainability approach of BMW Group?s project i. Reference will be made to the research results of the MINI E projects in the US and in Europe. Presenter Andreas Klugescheid, BMW AG
Technical Paper

Li-Ion Battery SOC Estimation Using Non-Linear Estimation Strategies Based on Equivalent Circuit Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1849
Due to their high energy density, power density, and durability, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rapidly becoming the most popular energy storage method for electric vehicles. Difficulty arises in accurately estimating the amount of left capacity in the battery during operation time, commonly known as battery state of charge (SOC). This paper presents a comparative study between six different Equivalent Circuit Li-ion battery models and two different state of charge (SOC) estimation strategies. The Battery models cover the state-of-the-art of Equivalent Circuit models discussed in literature. The Li-ion battery SOC is estimated using non-linear estimation strategies i.e. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF). The models and the state of charge estimation strategies are compared against simulation data obtained from AVL CRUISE software.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Use Phase of Passenger Cars in LCI

1998-11-30
982179
The results of previous Life Cycle Assessments indicate the ecological dominance of the vehicle's use phase compared to its production and recycling phase. Particularly the so-called weight-induced fuel saving coefficients point out the great spectrum (0.15 to 1.0 l/(100 kg · 100 km)) that affects the total result of the LCA significantly. The objective of this article, therefore, is to derive a physical based, i.e. scientific chargeable and practical approved, concept to determine the significant parameters of a vehicle's use phase for the Life Cycle Inventory. It turns out that - besides the aerodynamic and rolling resistance parameters and the efficiencies of the power train - the vehicle's weight, the rear axle's transmission ratio and the driven velocity profile have an important influence on a vehicle's fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Data Reduction in Automotive Multiplex Systems

1994-03-01
940135
Increasing demand for utilities like navigation systems or user-defined electronic phonebooks on one hand and sophisticated engine and gear controls on the other hand leads to growing bus load between distributed local control units. This paper shows the benefits and the characteristics of various state of the art data-compression algorithms and their impact on typical automotive multiplex dataclasses. The evaluation and optimization of promising algorithms can be done via a proposed “communications prototyping”-approach. The hardware/software components of such a rapid prototyping package are outlined. Finally, first performance results of suitable data-compression measures are presented.
Journal Article

Achieving a Scalable E/E-Architecture Using AUTOSAR and Virtualization

2013-04-08
2013-01-1399
Today's automotive software integration is a static process. Hardware and software form a fixed package and thus hinder the integration of new electric and electronic features once the specification has been completed. Usually software components assigned to an ECU cannot be easily transferred to other devices after they have been deployed. The main reasons are high system configuration and integration complexity, although shifting functions from one to another ECU is a feature which is generally supported by AUTOSAR. The concept of a Virtual Functional Bus allows a strict separation between applications and infrastructure and avoids source code modifications. But still further tooling is needed to reconfigure the AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW). Other challenges for AUTOSAR are mixed integrity, versioning and multi-core support. The upcoming BMW E/E-domain oriented architecture will require all these features to be scalable across all vehicle model ranges.
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