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Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1224
Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0624
A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Method for On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement

1999-10-25
1999-01-3460
Fast and exact measurement of engine oil consumption is a very difficult task. Our aim is to achieve this measurement at a common test bed without engine modifications. We resolved this problem with a new technique using Laser Mass Spectrometry to detect appropriate tracers in the raw engine exhaust. The tracers are added to the engine oil. to the engine oil. For detection of these tracers we use a Laser Mass Spectrometer (LAMS). This is a combination of resonant laser ionization (with an all-solid-state laser) and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Currently this is the only way to detect oil originated molecules (like our tracers) in the raw exhaust very fast (50 Hz) and sensitive (ppb-region). Thus, engine mapping of oil consumption over load and speed can be performed in 1-2 days with about 90 measurements. Even measurement during dynamic engine operation is possible, but not quantitative (due to the lack of information about dynamic exhaust gas mass flow).
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

1993-11-01
931988
Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Data Reduction in Automotive Multiplex Systems

1994-03-01
940135
Increasing demand for utilities like navigation systems or user-defined electronic phonebooks on one hand and sophisticated engine and gear controls on the other hand leads to growing bus load between distributed local control units. This paper shows the benefits and the characteristics of various state of the art data-compression algorithms and their impact on typical automotive multiplex dataclasses. The evaluation and optimization of promising algorithms can be done via a proposed “communications prototyping”-approach. The hardware/software components of such a rapid prototyping package are outlined. Finally, first performance results of suitable data-compression measures are presented.
Technical Paper

Robust Adaptive Data-Compression for Peak-Load Reduction in Low-Speed Automotive Multiplex Systems

1994-09-01
941658
The improvement of low-speed MUX-systems in car-body areas gets important in a scenario where on one hand, the possible number of integrated local control units (LCU's) gets larger and on the other hand, the possible versions of a car range from basic to top-of-the-line. Cost and developement time can be reduced if the same MUX-System is used throughout this whole range. A possibility to realize this is the use of data-compression (DC) for data-transmission. Basic configurations integrating only a small number of LCU's of a car-MUX can communicate without using data-compression, whereas for the top-of-the-line versions, the performance can be enhanced using DC only for communication processes between additional control units causing critical peak load situations. Specifically, the use of adaptive algorithms in automotive multiplex systems is a promising way to improve the MUX's capacity performance by minimizing redundant symbols/information in peak-load situations.
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