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Technical Paper

Title: Development of Reusable Body and Comfort Software Functions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1403
The potential to reduce the cost of embedded software by standardizing the application behavior for Automotive Body and Comfort domain functions is explored in this paper. AUTOSAR, with its layered architecture and a standard definition of the interfaces for Body and Comfort application functions, has simplified the exchangeability of software components. A further step is to standardize the application behavior, by developing standard specifications for common Body and Comfort functions. The corresponding software components can be freely exchanged between different OEM/Tier-1 users, even if developed independently by multiple suppliers. In practice, individual OEM users may need to maintain some distinction in the functionality. A method of categorizing the specifications as ‘common’ and ‘unique’, and to configure them for individual applications is proposed. This allows feature variability by means of relatively simple adapter functions.
Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

2012-06-13
2012-01-1548
Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Approach for the Chassis Control Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-1280
Handling characteristics, ride comfort and active safety are customer relevant attributes of modern premium vehicles. Electronic control units offer new possibilities to optimize vehicle performance with respect to these goals. The integration of multiple control systems, each with its own focus, leads to a high complexity. BMW and ITK Engineering have created a tool to tackle this challenge. A simulation environment to cover all development stages has been developed. Various levels of complexity are addressed by a scalable simulation model and functionality, which grows step-by-step with increasing requirements. The simulation environment ensures the coherence of the vehicle data and simulation method for development of the electronic systems. The article describes both the process of the electronic control unit (ECU) development and positive impact of an integrated tool on the entire vehicle development process.
Technical Paper

Comfort and Convenience Features in Luxury Cars

2002-10-21
2002-21-0052
This paper presents new comfort and convenience features in the luxury segment and focuses especially on Comfort Access and iDrive. The Comfort Access System offers the customer the possibility of unlocking the vehicle without active use of a key, of starting the engine and at the end of the journey of locking the car again. The aim of the iDrive concept was to enable intuitive operation of the various functions with simultaneously improved ergonomics. Both, a monitor and a controller with its variable haptic are the concept’s innovation. In addition, this paper also discusses future ECU (Electronic Control Unit) networks for body electronics. The focus is on package-driven ECU network architecture, having many functions developed by different suppliers on a single ECU.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0624
A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

byteflight~A new protocol for safety-critical applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0220
The permanently increasing number of convenience and safety functions leads to higher complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of sensors, actuators and electronic control units places higher demands on high- speed data communication protocols. Safety-critical systems need deterministic protocols with fault-tolerant behavior. The need for on-board diagnosis calls for flexible use of bandwidth and an ever-increasing number of functions necessitates a flexible means of extending the system. None of the communication solutions available on the market until now (like CAN or TTP) have been able to fulfill all these demands. To solve these problems, BMW together with several semiconductor companies has developed a new protocol for safety-critical applications in automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Software tools and methods for the practice-oriented PDM integration of design and diagnostics of mechatronic systems in vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0114
a practice-oriented approach for an accelerated product development and product design process for mechatronic systems is presented. The handling of complex and versatile product data to perform this process is shown in the area of electrical drives and actuators in cars. It is discussed, how the coordination of all the necessary disciplines as development, design, testing field, specification and release management should be software supported and PDM integrated. The advantages and benefits of the presented methods are shown on particular examples. The necessary software modules are introduced, showing that the realized solution gives both opportunities - the integration into a PDM backbone and at the same time an independent communication within department and/or company. The practical way, to realize the expert-specific needs of the development department, which is not possible with a general PDM system is pointed out.
Technical Paper

Advanced Design and Validation Techniques for Electronic Control Units

1998-02-23
980199
Increasing demand for dynamically controlled safety features, passenger comfort, and operational convenience in upper class automobiles requires an intensive use of electronic control units including software portions. Modeling, simulation, rapid prototyping, and verification of the software need new technologies to guarantee passenger security and to accelerate the time-to-market of new products. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of the design methods for the development of electronic control unit software at BMW. These design methods cover both discrete and continuous system parts, smoothly integrating the respective methods not merely on the code level, but on the documentation, simulation, and design level. In addition, we demonstrate two modeling and prototyping tools for discrete and continuous systems, namely Statemate and MatrixX, and discuss their advantages and drawbacks with respect to necessary prototyping demands.
Technical Paper

Open Systems and Interfaces for Distributed Electronics in Cars (OSEK)

1995-02-01
950291
The individual development process for distributed, communicating electronic control units hinders the integration of Automotive systems and increases the overall costs. In order to facilitate such applications, services and protocols for Communication, Network Management, and Operating System must be standardized. The aim of the OSEK project is to work out a respective specification proposal in cooperation with several car manufacturers and suppliers. This will permit a cost-effective system integration and support the portation of system functions between different electronic control units.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electronics-A Challenge for Systems Engineering

2000-11-01
2000-01-C048
This paper presents the challenges in automotive electronics. Considering the deficiencies of the current ECU (electronic control unit) design process, a new design process is outlined. This design process mainly focuses on the independence of the ECU hardware architecture development and the software function development.
Journal Article

Achieving a Scalable E/E-Architecture Using AUTOSAR and Virtualization

2013-04-08
2013-01-1399
Today's automotive software integration is a static process. Hardware and software form a fixed package and thus hinder the integration of new electric and electronic features once the specification has been completed. Usually software components assigned to an ECU cannot be easily transferred to other devices after they have been deployed. The main reasons are high system configuration and integration complexity, although shifting functions from one to another ECU is a feature which is generally supported by AUTOSAR. The concept of a Virtual Functional Bus allows a strict separation between applications and infrastructure and avoids source code modifications. But still further tooling is needed to reconfigure the AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW). Other challenges for AUTOSAR are mixed integrity, versioning and multi-core support. The upcoming BMW E/E-domain oriented architecture will require all these features to be scalable across all vehicle model ranges.
Journal Article

A Method for Identifying Most Significant Vehicle Parameters for Controller Performance of Autonomous Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0446
In this paper a method for the identification of most significant vehicle parameters influencing the behavior of a lateral control system of autonomous car is presented. Requirements for the design stage of the controller need to consider many uncertainties in the plant. While most vehicle properties can be compensated by an appropriate tuning of the control parameters, other vehicle properties can change significantly during usage. The control system is evaluated based on performance measures. Analyzed parameters comprise functional tire characteristics, mass of the vehicle and position of its center of gravity. Since the parameters are correlated, but Sobol’ sensitivity analysis assumes decorrelated inputs, random variation yields no reasonable results. Furthermore, the variation of each parameter or set of parameters is not applicable since the numbers of required simulations is increased significantly according to input dimension.
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