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Technical Paper

The BMW AVZ Wind Tunnel Center

2010-04-12
2010-01-0118
The new BMW Aerodynamisches Versuchszentrum (AVZ) wind tunnel center includes a full-scale wind tunnel, "The BMW Windkanal" and an aerodynamic laboratory "The BMW AEROLAB." The AVZ facility incorporates numerous new technology features that provide design engineers with new tools for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles. The AVZ features a single-belt rolling road in the AEROLAB and a five-belt rolling road in the Windkanal for underbody aerodynamic simulation. Each of these rolling road types has distinct advantages, and BMW will leverage the advantages of each system. The AEROLAB features two overhead traverses that can be configured to study vehicle drafting, and both static and dynamic passing maneuvers. To accurately simulate "on-road" aerodynamic forces, a novel collector/flow stabilizer was developed that produces a very flat axial static pressure distribution. The flat static pressure distribution represents a significant improvement relative to other open jet wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

The New BMW Climatic Testing Complex - The Energy and Environment Test Centre

2011-04-12
2011-01-0167
The Energy and Environment Test Centre (EVZ) is a complex comprising three large climatic wind tunnels, two smaller test chambers, nine soak rooms and support infrastructure. The capabilities of the wind tunnels and chambers are varied, and as a whole give BMW the ability to test at practically all conditions experienced by their vehicles, worldwide. The three wind tunnels have been designed for differing test capabilities, but share the same air circuit design, which has been optimized for energy consumption yet is compact for its large, 8.4 m₂, nozzle cross-section. The wind tunnel test section was designed to meet demanding aerodynamic specifications, including a limit on the axial static pressure gradient and low frequency static pressure fluctuations - design parameters previously reserved for larger aerodynamic or aero-acoustic wind tunnels. The aerodynamic design was achieved, in-part, by use of computational fluid dynamics and a purpose-built model wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

2007-04-16
2007-01-0104
In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

1993-11-01
931988
Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
Technical Paper

Robust Adaptive Data-Compression for Peak-Load Reduction in Low-Speed Automotive Multiplex Systems

1994-09-01
941658
The improvement of low-speed MUX-systems in car-body areas gets important in a scenario where on one hand, the possible number of integrated local control units (LCU's) gets larger and on the other hand, the possible versions of a car range from basic to top-of-the-line. Cost and developement time can be reduced if the same MUX-System is used throughout this whole range. A possibility to realize this is the use of data-compression (DC) for data-transmission. Basic configurations integrating only a small number of LCU's of a car-MUX can communicate without using data-compression, whereas for the top-of-the-line versions, the performance can be enhanced using DC only for communication processes between additional control units causing critical peak load situations. Specifically, the use of adaptive algorithms in automotive multiplex systems is a promising way to improve the MUX's capacity performance by minimizing redundant symbols/information in peak-load situations.
Technical Paper

Influence of Plenum Dimensions on Drag Measurements in 3/4-Open-Jet Automotive Wind Tunnels

1995-02-01
951000
The size of the room surrounding the wind tunnel test section, the so called wind tunnel plenum, is always seen as an important parameter of the wind tunnel building, but has rarely been the subject of systematic investigation regarding minimal requirements to meet quality objectives for aerodynamic testing. Experimental investigations of this object were made in a quarter-scale wind tunnel (nozzle area 1.4m2). The plenum dimensions were changeable by combinations of different side wall and ceiling positions. The results have shown, that the plenum can have a significant effect on the flow around the vehicle and therefore on the measured forces. Drag coefficient is under prediced if the wind tunnel plenum is too small. Recommendations are provided for the geometric dimensions of a wind tunnel plenum. The data obtained are a valuable tool for the layout of wind tunnel design concepts and for the evaluation of interference free wind tunnel simulation.
Technical Paper

A Two-Measurement Correction for the Effects of a Pressure Gradient on Automotive, Open-Jet, Wind Tunnel Measurements

2006-04-03
2006-01-0568
This paper provides a method that corrects errors induced by the empty-tunnel pressure distribution in the aerodynamic forces and moments measured on an automobile in a wind tunnel. The errors are a result of wake distortion caused by the gradient in pressure over the wake. The method is applicable to open-jet and closed-wall wind tunnels. However, the primary focus is on the open tunnel because its short test-section length commonly results in this wake interference. The work is a continuation of a previous paper [4] that treated drag only at zero yaw angle. The current paper extends the correction to the remaining forces, moments and model surface pressures at all yaw angles. It is shown that the use of a second measurement in the wind tunnel, made with a perturbed pressure distribution, provides sufficient information for an accurate correction. The perturbation in pressure distribution can be achieved by extending flaps into the collector flow.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Reference Dynamic Pressure in Open-Jet Automotive Wind Tunnels

1992-02-01
920344
In automotive open-jet wind tunnels reference velocity is usually measured in terms of a static pressure difference between two different cross-sectional areas of the tunnel. Most commonly used are two sections within the nozzle (Method 1: ΔP-Nozzle). Sometimes, the reference velocity is deduced from the static pressure difference between settling chamber and plenum (Method 2: ΔP-Plenum). Investigations in three full-scale open-jet automotive wind tunnels have clearly shown that determination of reference dynamic pressure according to ΔP-Plenum is physically incorrect. Basically, all aerodynamic coefficients, including drag coefficient, obtained by this method are too low. For test objects like cars and vans it was found that the error ΔcD depends on the test object's drag blockage in an open-jet wind tunnel.
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