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Journal Article

Timing Evaluation in E/E Architecture Design at BMW

Timing evaluation methods help to design a robust and extendible E/E architecture (electric/electronic). BMW has introduced the systematic application of such methods in the E/E design process within the last three years. Meanwhile, most of the architectural changes are now verified by a tool-based, automatic real-time analysis. This has increased the accuracy of the network planning and productivity of the BMW network department. In this paper, we give an overview of the actual status of timing evaluations in BMW's E/E architecture design. We discuss acceptance criteria, analysis metrics, and design rules, as far as these are related to timing. We look specifically at automation options, as these improve the productivity further. We will see that timing analysis has matured and should be mandatory for application in mass production E/E architecture development. At the same time, there is room for future improvements.
Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Journal Article

A Method for Identifying Most Significant Vehicle Parameters for Controller Performance of Autonomous Driving Functions

In this paper a method for the identification of most significant vehicle parameters influencing the behavior of a lateral control system of autonomous car is presented. Requirements for the design stage of the controller need to consider many uncertainties in the plant. While most vehicle properties can be compensated by an appropriate tuning of the control parameters, other vehicle properties can change significantly during usage. The control system is evaluated based on performance measures. Analyzed parameters comprise functional tire characteristics, mass of the vehicle and position of its center of gravity. Since the parameters are correlated, but Sobol’ sensitivity analysis assumes decorrelated inputs, random variation yields no reasonable results. Furthermore, the variation of each parameter or set of parameters is not applicable since the numbers of required simulations is increased significantly according to input dimension.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration of an Automotive Climate Control System

This paper describes a novel approach for modeling an automotive HVAC unit. The model consists of black-box models trained with experimental data from a self-developed measurement setup. It is capable of predicting the temperature and mass flow of the air entering the vehicle cabin at the various air vents. A combination of temperature and velocity sensors is the basis of the measurement setup. A measurement fault analysis is conducted to validate the accuracy of the measurement system. As the data collection is done under fluctuating ambient conditions, a review of the impact of various ambient conditions on the HVAC unit is performed. Correction models that account for the different ambient conditions incorporate these results. Numerous types of black-box models are compared to identify the best-suited type for this approach. Moreover, the accuracy of the model is validated using test drive data.