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Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

1998-02-23
980418
To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

1998-10-19
982438
The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0547
For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Spray-Atomization of Various Fuels for an Outwardly Opening Piezo Injector for the Application to a Pilot Injection Passenger Car Gas Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2117
Pilot injection gas engines are commonly used as large stationary engines. Often, the combustion is implemented as a dual-fuel strategy, which allows both mixed and diesel-only operation, based on a diesel engine architecture. The current research project focuses on the application of pilot injection in an engine based on gasoline components of the passenger car segment, which are more cost-effective than diesel components. The investigated strategy does not aim for a diesel-only combustion, hence only small liquid quantities are used for the main purpose of providing a strong, reliable ignition source for the natural gas charge. This approach is mainly driven to provide a reliable alternative to the high spark ignition energies required for high cylinder charge densities. When using such small liquid quantities, a standard common-rail diesel nozzle will apparently not be ideal regarding some general specifications.
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