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Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Journal Article

Hydrogen Fuel Consumption Correlation between Established EPA Measurement Methods and Exhaust Emissions Measurements

The development of hydrogen-fueled vehicles has created the need for established fuel consumption testing methods. Until now the EPA has only accepted three methods of hydrogen fuel consumption testing, gravimetric, PVT (stabilized pressure, volume and temperature), and Coriolis mass flow; all of which necessitate physical measurements of the fuel supply [1]. BMW has developed an equation and subsequent testing methods to accurately and effectively determine hydrogen fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles using only exhaust emissions. Known as “Hydrogen-Balance”, the new equation requires no changes to EPA procedures and only slight modifications to most existing chassis dynamometers and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems. The SAE 2008-01-1036, also written by BMW, explains the background as well as required equipment and changes to the CVS testing system. This paper takes hydrogen balance further by testing it against the three EPA established forms of fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Journal Article

Possible Influences on Fuel Consumption Calculations while using the Hydrogen-Balance Method

The Hydrogen-Balance equation makes it possible to calculate the fuel economy or fuel consumption of hydrogen powered vehicles simply by analyzing exhaust emissions. While the benefits of such a method are apparent, it is important to discuss possible influencing factors that may decrease Hydrogen-Balance accuracy. Measuring vehicle exhaust emissions is done with a CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system. While the CVS system has proven itself both robust and precise over the years, utilizing it for hydrogen applications requires extra caution to retain measurement accuracy. Consideration should be given to all testing equipment, as well as the vehicle being tested. Certain environmental factors may also play a role not just in Hydrogen-Balance accuracy, but as also in other low emission testing accuracy.
Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Problems of Partial Sample Systems for Modal Raw Exhaust Mass Emission Measurement

Changing of emission levels leads to an increasing demand for a satisfying solution to measure mass emissions of motor vehicles on both, engine and chassis dynamometers. Partial flow systems may fit to the demands. These systems require an exact determination of exhaust volume flow and time aligned concentration measurement. This paper will address these issues and problems related with partial flow sampling. Several exhaust flow measurement systems have been studied and integrated mass results have been checked against the full flow CVS. As the investigations indicate, modal mass calculation from sampling direct exhaust at the end of tailpipe is feasible but not a satisfying solution in equivalency and repeatability in comparison to CVS-results. This is especially the case on emission levels near or below ULEV.
Technical Paper

HC Measurements by Means of Flame Ionization: Background and Limits of Low Emission Measurement

Flame Ionization Detectors (FID) can be used to detect organic hydrocarbons that occur in plastics, lacquers, adhesives, solvents and gasoline. These substances are ionized in the hydrogen flame of the FID. The ionization current that is produced depends on the amount of hydrocarbon in the sample. With the lowering of emissions limits, measuring instruments, including the FID, have to be able to detect very low values. For SULEV (Super-Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) measurements the accuracy and also the general applicability of the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) measuring technique are now questioned. Basic understanding is necessary to ask the right questions. One important issue is the science behind the measurement principle of the FID. And in this case especially the influence of contamination of the operating gases, cross sensitivity and data processing on the Limit of Detection (LOD).
Technical Paper

Studies on Enhanced CVS Technology to Achieve SULEV Certification

For the measurement of exhaust emissions, Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) technology is recommended by legislation and has proven its practical capability in the past. However, the introduction of new low emission standards has raised questions regarding the accuracy and variability of the CVS system when measuring very low emission levels. This paper will show that CVS has the potential to achieve sufficient precision for certification of SULEV concepts. Thus, there is no need for the introduction of new test methods involving high cost. An analysis of the CVS basic equations indicates the importance of the Dilution Factor (DF) for calculating true mass emissions. A test series will demonstrate that, by adjusting the dilution and using state of the art analyzers, the consistency of exhaust results is comparable with those of LEV concepts, measured with conventional CVS systems and former standard analyzers.
Technical Paper

Powder Clear Coat -- A Quantum Leap in Automotive Paint Technology

BMW - the driving force for progress As we approach the new millenium, to ensure the continuation of the progress into the future, BMW uses leading edge approaches in its materials research and processing. Overview production sites all over the world - Plant Dingolfing Quality requirements for automobile painting The complex and wide-ranging demands that the outer skin of an automobile has to meet offered us the chance to advance with a technological leap from liquid clear coat to the potentials of powder clear coat. The new clear coat technology The clear coat creates the ultimate gloss effect - and powder-based clear coat makes the surface of the car even more brilliant. To achieve this effect the body is covered by microscopically small paint particles. A pioneer achievement A lot of challenges in both material development and systems-engineering had to be made. The automotive world was watching, many experts said it could not be successfully used as an OEM clear coat.
Technical Paper

The Development of a BMW Catalyst Concept for LEV/EU3 Legislation for a 8 Cylinder Engine by Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

For the BMW V8 engine, a new LEV/EU3 emission concept has been developed by improvements to the previous engine management and secondary air supply and a complete new exhaust system. Beside the emission limits, also high engine output targets and high operating reliability were targeted. In addition the new exhaust system had to meet low cost targets. Based on these requirements an exhaust concept with separate pre catalyst and main catalyst was chosen. To reduce the heat mass and to optimize the pressure drop, 4.3mil/400cpsi thin wall ceramic substrates were used for the pre and main catalyst.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
Technical Paper

Use of a Mass Spectrometer to Continuously Monitor H2S and SO2 in Automotive Exhaust

In studying H2S emissions, it is desirable to have an analytical technique which is rapid, continuous, accurate and easy to use in a laboratory or vehicle exhaust environment. Typically, H2S has been measured using the EPA impinger method with collection times on the order of 1 to 2 minutes. Other techniques have been developed with significantly shorter response times. However, it has been shown that the major release of H2S occurs in less than 20 seconds after a vehicle changes from rich to lean operation. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have an H2S analytical technique with a response time of less than 10 seconds. In this paper, the benefits of use of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) to continuously monitor H2S and SO2, emissions are reported. Using the CIMS technique, the effects of several operating parameters on the release of H2S and SO2 from automotive catalysts were studied.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Laser Analysis of Exhaust Gas

In order to achieve the emission levels required for Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) it is necessary to obtain insight into emission reactions to the motor management systems during transient engine performance. The optimisation of transients in typical driving profiles, such as shifting, acceleration load reversal, necessitates suitable gas measurement equipment. A technique capable to resolve one combustion cycle consists in spectroscopic gas analysis by using tunable infrared diode lasers. This paper describes the available equipment and demonstrates that a diode laser system fulfils the specific demands for the analysis of transient operating characteristics of engine management systems.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalytic Converter (EHC) in the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 Switch-Tronic

The production of the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 with Switch-Tronic transmission provides the markets of Europe and Japan with an exclusive, luxury-orientated, high performance limited series limousine. This is the first vehicle worldwide to be fitted with the progressive exhaust gas aftertreatment technology known as the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC), in which the effectiveness of the power utilized is increased significantly by an alternating heating process for both catalytic converters. Only since this achievement has the implementation of the EHC been viable without extensive modification to the battery and alternator. With this exhaust gas aftertreatment concept, the emissions of this high performance vehicle will fall to less than half the maximum permissible for compliance with 1996 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Heated Catalytic Converter Competing Technologies to Meet LEV Emission Standards

Apart from the reduction of engine-out emissions from the powerplant, the development of an efficient and reliable catalytic converter heating system is an important task of automotive engineering in the future to meet standards that will require reduction of cold start emissions. Carrying out a comprehensive study in this field, BMW has tested and evaluated possible solutions to this challenge. In additon to the electrically heated catalytic converter (E-cat) and the afterburner chamber, an incorporated burner system would meet the requirement for fast catalyst light-off in the future, particularly in the case of larger engines.
Technical Paper

A Physical-Based Approach for Modeling the Influence of Different Operating Parameters on the Dependency of External EGR Rate and Indicated Efficiency

External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) provides an opportunity to increase the efficiency of turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Of the competing technologies and configurations, Low-Pressure EGR (LP-EGR) is the most challenging in terms of its dynamic behavior. Only some of the stationary feasible potential can be used during dynamic engine operation. To guarantee fuel consumption-optimized engine operation with no instabilities, a load point-dependent limitation of the EGR rate or alternatively an adaptation of the operating point to the actual EGR rate is crucial. For this purpose, a precise knowledge of efficiency and combustion variance is necessary. Since the operating state includes the actual EGR rate, it has an additional dimension, which usually results in an immense measuring effort.