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Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1036
Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Journal Article

Possible Influences on Fuel Consumption Calculations while using the Hydrogen-Balance Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-1037
The Hydrogen-Balance equation makes it possible to calculate the fuel economy or fuel consumption of hydrogen powered vehicles simply by analyzing exhaust emissions. While the benefits of such a method are apparent, it is important to discuss possible influencing factors that may decrease Hydrogen-Balance accuracy. Measuring vehicle exhaust emissions is done with a CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system. While the CVS system has proven itself both robust and precise over the years, utilizing it for hydrogen applications requires extra caution to retain measurement accuracy. Consideration should be given to all testing equipment, as well as the vehicle being tested. Certain environmental factors may also play a role not just in Hydrogen-Balance accuracy, but as also in other low emission testing accuracy.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Use Phase of Passenger Cars in LCI

1998-11-30
982179
The results of previous Life Cycle Assessments indicate the ecological dominance of the vehicle's use phase compared to its production and recycling phase. Particularly the so-called weight-induced fuel saving coefficients point out the great spectrum (0.15 to 1.0 l/(100 kg · 100 km)) that affects the total result of the LCA significantly. The objective of this article, therefore, is to derive a physical based, i.e. scientific chargeable and practical approved, concept to determine the significant parameters of a vehicle's use phase for the Life Cycle Inventory. It turns out that - besides the aerodynamic and rolling resistance parameters and the efficiencies of the power train - the vehicle's weight, the rear axle's transmission ratio and the driven velocity profile have an important influence on a vehicle's fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1262
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

A Physical-Based Approach for Modeling the Influence of Different Operating Parameters on the Dependency of External EGR Rate and Indicated Efficiency

2018-09-10
2018-01-1736
External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) provides an opportunity to increase the efficiency of turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Of the competing technologies and configurations, Low-Pressure EGR (LP-EGR) is the most challenging in terms of its dynamic behavior. Only some of the stationary feasible potential can be used during dynamic engine operation. To guarantee fuel consumption-optimized engine operation with no instabilities, a load point-dependent limitation of the EGR rate or alternatively an adaptation of the operating point to the actual EGR rate is crucial. For this purpose, a precise knowledge of efficiency and combustion variance is necessary. Since the operating state includes the actual EGR rate, it has an additional dimension, which usually results in an immense measuring effort.
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